Advertisement

Military-Political History of the Pskov-Livonian Border: History of Struggle for Natural Resources in the Context of Climatic Changes of 14th–15th cc.

  • Elena V. SalminaEmail author
  • Sergey A. Salmin
  • Svetlana F. Matsevich
Chapter
  • 26 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Networks and Systems book series (LNNS, volume 111)

Abstract

The content of the research is the study of the climatic factor influence on the intensification of the struggle for natural resources in the border of the Lord Pskov and the Livonian Confederation in the period of climatic changes in the 14th–15th centuries. The objective of the study was the identification of the fullest possible range of the causes of spontaneous cases of the military-political situation aggravation in the period under study. Russian Chronicles, Russian scribes books, Livonian Chronicles, correspondence of the Livonian officials were used, later sources were also involved. Maps of military conflicts correlated with the known periods of climatic fluctuations in the studied region are made. The most important and significant came to be struggle for lake and river fishing grounds (Piirissaar island (Zhelachka), Narva rapids, etc.), for the territory of wild bees population mass rate (Purnau) and for haymaking. To redistribute the resources of these territories in their favor, the sides used both direct seizure of the resource, and diplomatic and military pressure on the opponent. The large-scale invasions, chronologically coinciding with lean years, should be specially marked. Mapping the regular military clashes loci allowed us to determine the list of resources, the struggle for control of which took the most violent forms. It is shown that in the 14th–15th centuries the struggle for renewable resources of the border territories, largely due to the climatic factor, made the mayor content of military actions and conflicts of Pskov and the Livonian Confederation.

JEL Codes

N13 N43 N53 

Keywords

Military history Renewable natural resources Climate Livonian Confederation Border conflicts Pskov Pskov land 

References

  1. 1.
    Bessudnova MB (2015) Rossiya i Livoniya v konce XV veka. Istoki konflikta [Russia and Livonia in the late 15th century. Sources of the conflict]. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bessudnova MB (2016) Specifika i dinamika razvitiya russko-livonskix protivorechij v poslednej treti XV veka [Specificity and dynamics of Russian-Livonian contradictions in the last third of the XVth century]. Lipeczkij gosudarstvennyj pedagogicheskij universitet imeni P.P. Semenova-Tyan-Shanskogo [Lipetsk state pedagogical university named after P. P. Semenov-Tan-Shansky], Lipetsk (in Russian)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Borisenkov EP, Pasetsky VM (2002) Letopis` neobychajnyx yavlenij prirody za 2,5 tysyacheletiya (V v. do n.e. - XX v. n.e.) [Chronicle of extraordinary natural phenomena for 2.5 millennia (The Vth Century BC—the XXt century AD)]. Gidrometioizdat [Hydrometeorology Publishing House], St. Petersburg (in Russian)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Camenisch C, Keller KM, Salvisberg V, Amann B, Bauch M, Blumer S, Brázdil R, Brönnimann S, Büntgen U, Campbell BMS, Fernández-Donado L, Fleitmann D, Glaser R, González-Rouco F, Grosjean M, Hoffmann RC, Huhtamaa H, Joos F, Kiss A, Kotyza O, Lehner F, Luterbacher J, Maughan N, Neukom R, Novy T, Priby K, Raible CC, Riemann D, Schuh M, Slavin P, Werner JP, Wetter O (2016) The early Spörer Minimum—a period of extraordinary climate and socio-economic changes in Western and Central Europe (2016). Clim Past Discuss.  https://doi.org/10.5194/cp-2016-7. 2016 manuscript under review for journal Clim. Past Published: 12 February 2016. Available at https://boris.unibe.ch/77863/1/cp-2016-7.pdf. Accessed 5 Oct 2019
  5. 5.
    Estlandskaya guberniya (1852) [Estland guberniya]. In: Voenno-statisticheskoe obozrenie Rossijskoj imperii [Military statistical review of the Russian Empire], vol. 7, part 3, SPbGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Kangur A, Kangur P, Vaino V, Tambets M, Krause T, Kangur K, Pihu E (2012) Ryby i rybolovstvo [Fishes and fishing]. In: Timm T, Rauskas A, Haberman Yu, Yaani A (eds) Pskovsko-Chudskoye ozero [Pskov-Peipsi Lake]. Eesti Loodusfoto, Tartu, pp 335–354 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuznetsova VS (1966) Geologicheskie usloviya rajona Chudskogo ozera [Geological conditions of Lake Peipus]. In: Karaev GN (ed) Ledovoe Poboishhe 1242 g. Trudy kompleksnoj ekspedicii po utochneniyu mesta Ledovogo poboishha [The Ice Battle 1242. Proceedings of the complex expedition to clarify the place of the Ice battle]. Moscow-Leningrad, pp 122–129 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kustin AE (1966) Nekotorye dannye o zaselenii zapadnogo poberezhya Tyoplogo Ozera [Some data on the settlement of the West coast of the Warm Lake]. In: Karaev GN (ed) Ledovoe Poboishhe 1242 g. Trudy kompleksnoj ekspedicii po utochneniyu mesta Ledovogo poboishha [The Ice Battle 1242. Proceedings of the complex expedition to clarify the place of the Ice battle]. Moscow-Leningrad, pp 98–102 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lebedev VD (1960) Presnovodnaya chetvertichnaya ikhtiofauna Evropeiskoy chasti SSSR [The Freshwater Quaternary ichthyofauna of European part of the USSR]. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liflyandskaya guberniya (1853) [Lifland guberniya]. In: Voenno-statisticheskoe obozrenie Rossijskoj imperii [Military statistical review of the Russian Empire], vol. 7, part 2, SPbGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Menke U, Kangur K, Borisov V (2007) General description and topography. In: van Eerden M, Bos H, van Hulst L (eds) In the mirror of the lake. Rijkswaterstaat Centre of Water Management, Lelystad, pp 50–61Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Pervaya Livonskaya vojna, 1480–1481 gody. Dokumenty (2019) [The First Livonian war, 1480–1481. Documents]. Saint-PetersburgGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Peter of Dusburg (1997) Khronika zemly Prusskoj [Chronicle of the land of Prussia]. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    PSRL 2000a. Novgorodskaya 4-ya letopis’ [The chronicles 4 of Novgorod]. In: Nasonov AN (ed) Polnoye sobranie russkih letopisey [The full collection of Russian annals], vol 4, iss 1. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    PSRL. 2000b. Pskovskie letopisi [The chronicles of Pskov]. In: Nasonov AN (ed) Polnoye sobranie russkih letopisey [The full collection of Russian annals], vol 5, iss 2. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    PSRL. 2003. Pskovskie letopisi [The chronicles of Pskov]. In: Nasonov AN (ed) Polnoye sobranie russkih letopisey [The full collection of Russian annals], vol 5, iss 1. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    The Pskovo-Pechersky monastery during the Livonian War (1558–1582): holdings in Estonia, ed. by Anti Selart. Tartuer historische Studien, 5. Hrsg. Dr. Olaf Mertelsmann (Hamburg: Dr. Kovač, 2016)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Pskovskaya guberniya (1852) [Pskov guberniya]. In: Voenno-statisticheskoe obozrenie Rossijskoj imperii [Military statistical review of the Russian Empire], vol 3, part 2. SPbGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Ränk G (1934) Peipsi kalastusest [The Peipsi Lake fisheries]. TartuGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Salmin SA, Yavorskaya LV (2016) Raskop Neznanova Gorka-II v 2013/2014 gg. [Excavation of Neznanova Gorka-II in 2013/2014]. In the collection “Arheologiya i istoriya Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Seminar imeni akademika V.V. Sedova” [Archaeology and history of Pskov and Pskov land. Seminar named after academician V. V. Sedov]. Materials of session 61, vol 31. Moscow-Pskov-St. Petersburg, pp 43–56Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Salmina EV (1999) Dinamika izmenenij v sostave rybnyx ulovov v srednevekovom Pskove (po rezultatam izucheniya osteologicheskix materialov) [Dynamics of changes in fish catch composition in the Medieval Pskov town (results of osteological studies)]. In: Sedov VV (ed) Drevnosti Pskova: archaeologia, istoria, architektura. Pskov, pp 178–185 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Salmina EV (2001) Etapy razvitiya organizacii rybolovnogo promysla v srednevekovom Pskove [Stages of fishing development in the medieval Pskov]. In: Tverskoy Archaeologicheskiy Sbornik [Tver archaeological collection], vol 2, iss 4. Tver, pp 234–238 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Salmina E (2015) Fishing settlements in Pskov region in the sixteenth century (according to archaeological data and written sources). Environ Archaeol: J Hum Palaeoecol. Available at http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14614103.2015.1129716. Accessed 5 Oct 2019
  24. 24.
    Salmina E, Lajus Yu (2011) Fisheries in the urban environment in the North-Western part of Russia 12–20th centuries. In: Myllyntaus T, Hettula P, Manni T, Piilola J (eds) Encounters of sea and land. The 6th ESEH conference. University of Turku, Turku, Finland, 28 June–2 July 2011, pp 171–172Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sanktpetergurgskaya guberniya (1851) [Sanktpetergurg guberniya]. In: Voenno-statisticheskoe obozrenie Rossijskoj imperii [Military statistical review of the Russian Empire], vol 3, part 1. SPbGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    SMAMU (1913) Sbornik Moskovskogo Ministerstva Justisii. Pskov I ego prigorody [Collection of the Moscow archaive of the Ministry of Justice, vol 5. Pskov and its suburbs]. Moscow (in Russian)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Selart A (2015) Vladeniya Pskovo-Pecherskogo monastyrya na yuge Estonii vo vremya Livonskoj vojny [Possessions of the Pskov-Pechersky monastery in southern Estonia during the Livonian war]. In the collection Arheologiya i istoriya Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Seminar imeni akademika V.V. Sedova [Archaeology and history of Pskov and Pskov land. Seminar named after academician V.V. Sedov]. Materials of session 60, vol 30. Nestor-History, Moscow-Pskov-St. Petersburg, pp 132–142 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Selart A, Tvauri A, Laanelaid A (2017) Die Burg Warbeck (Kastre). Balt J Art Hist 13(Spring). Available at http://ojs.utlib.ee/index.php/bjah/article/view/BJAH.2017.13.03. Accessed 14 Oct 2019
  29. 29.
    von Stern C (1937) Die Pleskauer Annexion von 1476, Der einzige Grenzlandverlust unsrer mittelalterlichen Ostmark. In: Baltische Monatshefte „Ernst Plates“. Riga, S 148–156Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    von Stern C (1937) Der Kleinkrieg um die Ostgrenze im 15, Jahrhundert Stern, Carl von. In: Baltische Monatshefte (1937) „Ernst Plates“. Riga, S 69–79Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Tavast E (2012) Berega Pskovsko Chudskogo ozera [Shores of Lake Peipus]. In: Timm T, Raukas A, Haberman Yu, Jaani A (eds) Pskovsko-Chudskoe ozero [Lake Peipus]. Eesti Ludusfoto, Tartu, pp 75–84Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Tyulina TYu (1966) K voprosu o prirodny`x usloviyax v XIII v. v severnoj chasti Tyoplogo ozera [On the question of natural conditions in the XIIIth century in the Northern part of the Warm lake]. In: Karaev GN (ed) Ledovoe Poboishhe 1242 g. Trudy kompleksnoj ekspedicii po utochneniyu mesta Ledovogo poboishha [The Ice Battle 1242. Proceedings of the complex expedition to clarify the place of the Ice battle]. Moscow-Leningrad, pp 103–121 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wartberg G (1879) Livonskaya hronika Germana Vartberga [The Livonian chronicle of Hermann Wartberg]. In: Sbornik materialov i statej po istorii Pribaltijskogo kraya [Collection of materials and articles on the history of the Baltic region]. Printing House of A. I. Lipinsky, Riga, pp 81–155Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Yavorskaya LV (2013) «Kostnye vymostki» v drevnerusskix gorodax. «Anatomiya» odnoj arxeologicheskoj zagadki [“Bone paving” in ancient cities. “Anatomy” of one archaeological riddle]. Zool J 92(9):1179–1189 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Yavorskaya LV (2014) Torgovlya myasom ili vy`mostki iz kostej? Arxeozoologicheskie issledovaniya raskova Luzhskij II v Pskove [Meat trade or bone paving? Archaeozoological research of the Luzhsky II excavation in Pskov]. In the collection “Arxeologiya i istoriya Pskova i Pskovskoj zemli. Seminar imeni akademika V.V. Sedova” [Archaeology and history of Pskov and Pskov land. Seminar named after academician V.V. Sedov]. Proceedings of the 59th session, vol 29. Nestor-History, Moscow-Pskov-St. Petersburg, pp 42–55 (in Russian)Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Yurtseva A, Salmina E, Galik A, Lajus D (2014) How a millennium of fishing changed fish populations: a case study of Lake Peipus and the Velikaya River (NW Russia). Aquatic Sciences. Research Across Boundaries. Available at https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00027-014-0381-4. Accessed 5 Oct 2019

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Socio-humanitarian regionicsPskov State UniversityPskovRussia
  2. 2.Department Archaeological Centre of Pskov RegionPskovRussia
  3. 3.Archaeological Centre of Pskov Region, Pskov Archaeological CentrePskovRussia
  4. 4.Pskov State UniversityPskovRussia

Personalised recommendations