Stained Visible Watermarking: A Securely Tunable Way of Joint Image Copyright and Privacy Protection
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Tunability of the visual degradation of the publicized image may impact the security of the protected content when selective encryption and visible watermarking are separately used to protect the image copyright and privacy. Either the consistency inside the visible watermark or the relevance of the public data to the encrypted one can be exploited for the unauthorized recovery without keys. In this paper, we propose a novel framework, referred to as stained visible watermarking, that integrates the perceptual cryptography and visible watermarking into a secure and tunable system to protect both the copyright and the privacy. Key-generated noises as tunable stains work together with the visible watermark to disguise the protected data with the required level of intelligibility and break the consistency of neighboring pixels inside the visible watermark to enhance the robustness of the watermark. The tunability of the visual degradation is fully controlled by the strength parameters of the stains and watermark. Data normalization is introduced for reversibility to avoid potential under/over-flow. Experimental results and security analysis have demonstrated that our proposed scheme can jointly protect the privacy and copyright of images that are posted online, and the publicized image can be securely fine-tuned to adapt to the requirement of the applications.
KeywordsCopyright protection Visible watermarking Privacy-preserving Security Selective encryption Tunability
This project is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant 61462023.
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