Advertisement

Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Carrot Cultivation and Processing: An Italian Case Study for a Small Family Company in the Marche Region

  • A. IlariEmail author
  • D. Duca
  • G. Toscano
  • V. Vecchiarelli
  • E. Foppa Pedretti
Conference paper
  • 37 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Civil Engineering book series (LNCE, volume 67)

Abstract

Carrot environmental impact assessment was conducted using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method (ISO 14040:2006; 14044:2006) and following Product Category Rules (PCR) on arable crops. SimaPro® has been used for impact assessment calculation. Goal and scope: the goal was to assess the impact of 1 kg of carrots for different packaging solutions. Life Cycle Inventory (LCI): was carried out with primary data provided by the farmers and by the processing company through interviews and consultation of official documents. Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA): was carried out using CML_IA characterization model. Interpretation: results obtained were interpreted highlighting the phases of greatest impact through a contribution analysis, and the impact variability due to data uncertainties through an uncertainty analysis. The potential impact for the Global Warming (GW) category varies between 1.2 × 10−1and 2.1 × 10−1 kg CO2 eq, for Acidification (AC) between 7.04 × 10−4 and 1.06 × 10−3 kg SO2 eq, for Ozone Depletion (OP) between 2.89 × 10−5 and 5.25 × 10−5 kg C2H4 eq, for Eutrophication (EP) between 2.19 × 10−4 and 3.05 × 10−4 kg PO43−. The greatest impacts were recorded for products with smaller sizes (0.5 kg trays). For larger formats the most impactful phase is field cultivation while for the smaller ones is packaging. As far as transport is concerned, the greatest impact is on the product coming from Mesola and not from Sicily, this is due to greater loading efficiency of transportation from Sicily.

Keywords

LCA Horticulture Vegetables Environmental sustainability Comparative assessment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The activity presented in the paper has been conducted inside a bachelor’s degree research program. The authors are grateful to the company C.I.L.P.O. DI VECCHIARELLI MARIO & C. S.N.C. that provided the necessary data for the analysis.

References

  1. Beccali, M., Cellura, M., Iudicello, M., & Mistretta, M. (2009). Resource consumption and environmental impacts of the agrofood sector: life cycle assessment of Italian citrus-based products. Environmental Management, 43(4), 707–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. EPD International. (2016). Arable Crops, product category classification UN CPC 011, 014, 017, 019. EPD website, International EPD system.Google Scholar
  3. FAOSTAT. (2017). FAOSTAT crop database for carrot and tunips access to database on 5/21/2019.Google Scholar
  4. Frankowska, A., Jeswani, H. K., & Azapagic, A. (2019a). Environmental impacts of vegetables consumption in the UK. Science of the Total Environment 682, 80–105.Google Scholar
  5. Frankowska, A., Jeswani, H. K., & Azapagic, A. (2019b). Environmental sustainability issues in the food-energy-water nexus in the UK vegetables sector: Energy and water consumption, Energy Procedia.Google Scholar
  6. Ilari, A., & Duca, D. (2018). Energy and environmental sustainability of nursery step finalized to “fresh cut” salad production by means of LCA. International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment, 23(4), 800–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. ISO. (2006a). ISO 14040:2006—Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Principles and framework.Google Scholar
  8. ISO. (2006b). ISO 14044:2006—Environmental management—Life cycle assessment—Requirements and guidelines.Google Scholar
  9. Raghu, K. C. (2014). Comparative lifecycle assessment on organic and conventional carrots case: carrots from south-savo and imported carrots from Italy. Master’s Degree: Lappeenranta University of Technology.Google Scholar
  10. Tukker, A., Huppes, G., Guinée, J., Heijungs, R., de Koning, A., van Oers, L., Suh, S., Geerken, T., van Holderbeke, M., Jansen, B., Nielsen, P., Eder, P., & Delgado, L. (2006). Environmental Impact of Products (EIPRO). Analysis of the Life Cycle Environmental Impacts Related to the Final Consumption of the EU-25, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Prospective Technological Studies.Google Scholar
  11. Wainwright, H., Jordan, C., & Day, H. (2014). Environmental impact of production horticulture. In G. R. Dixon & D. E. Aldous (Eds.), Horticulture: Plants for people and places (vol. 3, p. 503).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Ilari
    • 1
    Email author
  • D. Duca
    • 1
  • G. Toscano
    • 1
  • V. Vecchiarelli
    • 1
  • E. Foppa Pedretti
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental SciencesUniversità Politecnica Delle MarcheAnconaItaly

Personalised recommendations