Advertisement

Technology Know-How: From Silicon to Devices

  • Jens LienigEmail author
  • Juergen Scheible
Chapter
  • 59 Downloads

Abstract

We discuss the fabrication technologies for IC chips in this chapter. We will focus on the main process steps and especially on those aspects that are of particular importance for understanding how they affect, and in some cases drive, the layout of ICs. All our analyses in this chapter will be for silicon as the base material; the principles and understanding gained can be applied to other substrates as well. Following a brief introduction to the fundamentals of IC fabrication (Sect. 2.1) and the base material used in it, namely silicon (Sect. 2.2), we discuss the photolithography process deployed for all structuring work in Sect. 2.3. We will then present in Sect. 2.4 some theoretical opening remarks on typical phenomena encountered in IC fabrication. Knowledge of these phenomena is very useful for understanding the process steps we cover in Sects. 2.5–2.8. We examine a simple exemplar process in Sect. 2.9 and observe how a field-effect transistor (FET) – the most important device in modern integrated circuits—is created. To drive the key points home, we provide a review of each topic at the end of every section from the point of view of layout design by discussing relevant physical design aspects.

References

  1. 1.
    R.J. Baker, CMOS: Circuit Design, Layout, and Simulation (Wiley, 2010). ISBN 978-0-470-88132-3, 2010Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. Hastings, The Art of Analog Layout, 2nd edn. (Pearson, 2005). ISBN 978-0131464100Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    O. Kononchuk, B.-Y. Nguyen, Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) Technology: Manufacture and Applications (Woodhead Publishing Series in Electronic and Optical Materials, Vol. 58) (Woodland Publishing, 2014). ISBN 978-0857095268Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    J. Lienig, M. Thiele, Fundamentals of Electromigration-Aware Integrated Circuit Design (Springer, 2018), ISBN 978-3-319-73557-3.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73558-0
  5. 5.
    J.D. Plummer, M. Deal, P.D. Griffin, Silicon VLSI Technology: Fundamentals, Practice, and Modeling (Pearson, 2000). ISBN 978-0130850379Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. van Zant, Microchip Fabrication: A Practical Guide to Semiconductor Processing (McGraw-Hill Publ. Comp., 2004). ISBN 978-0071432412Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical and Computer EngineeringDresden University of TechnologyDresden, SaxonyGermany
  2. 2.Electronic Design AutomationReutlingen UniversityReutlingen, Baden-WuerttembergGermany

Personalised recommendations