Technology Know-How: From Silicon to Devices

  • Jens LienigEmail author
  • Juergen Scheible


We discuss the fabrication technologies for IC chips in this chapter. We will focus on the main process steps and especially on those aspects that are of particular importance for understanding how they affect, and in some cases drive, the layout of ICs. All our analyses in this chapter will be for silicon as the base material; the principles and understanding gained can be applied to other substrates as well. Following a brief introduction to the fundamentals of IC fabrication (Sect. 2.1) and the base material used in it, namely silicon (Sect. 2.2), we discuss the photolithography process deployed for all structuring work in Sect. 2.3. We will then present in Sect. 2.4 some theoretical opening remarks on typical phenomena encountered in IC fabrication. Knowledge of these phenomena is very useful for understanding the process steps we cover in Sects. 2.5–2.8. We examine a simple exemplar process in Sect. 2.9 and observe how a field-effect transistor (FET) – the most important device in modern integrated circuits—is created. To drive the key points home, we provide a review of each topic at the end of every section from the point of view of layout design by discussing relevant physical design aspects.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Electrical and Computer EngineeringDresden University of TechnologyDresden, SaxonyGermany
  2. 2.Electronic Design AutomationReutlingen UniversityReutlingen, Baden-WuerttembergGermany

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