Corporate Social Responsibility of Romanian SMEs Versus Polish SMEs

  • Silvia Puiu
  • Adam Krystian Wiśniewski
Part of the CSR, Sustainability, Ethics & Governance book series (CSEG)


The paper presents the corporate social responsibility (CSR) in the European Union, with a focus on the CSR initiatives of Romanian and Polish small and medium enterprises. The research objectives are: to establish the tendencies of CSR initiatives in SMEs in the member states of the EU; to highlight the CSR reporting of these entities and put forward a few recommendations to increase the level of CSR in Romanian and Polish SMEs. The results can contribute to offering a better picture on CSR and its implementation in these enterprises as well as developing their activities in countries with a communist history and sill with a transition economy.


  1. Alistar, V., Remitti, P., Pitallis, C., Holmes, N., Duggan, A., & Brophy, P. (2013). Integritatea in mediul de afaceri: Modele de bune practice europene. Bucuresti: Transparency International Romania.Google Scholar
  2. Anca, C., Aston, J., Stanciu, E., & Rusu, D. (2011). Corporate social responsibility in Romania. Retrieved from
  3. Balluchi, F., & Furlotti, K. (2013). Small and medium enterprises and environmental issues: Empirical evidences in Italian context. In Proceedings of the 1st Annual International Interdisciplinary Conference (pp. 147–157), AIIC 2013, Azores, Portugal, 24–26 April.Google Scholar
  4. Bauer, L., Bozhinova, K., Malinowski, M., Maunaga, K., & Walczak, N. (2013). Promotion of CSR among small and medium-sized enterprises. Warsaw: Sendzimir Foundation.Google Scholar
  5. CERFE Group. (2001). Action research on corporate citizenship among European small and medium enterprises. Rome: CERFE Laboratory.Google Scholar
  6. Cochius, T. (2006). Corporate social responsibility in Dutch SMEs: Motivations and CSR stakeholders. Retrieved from
  7. Csafor, H. (2008). Corporate social responsibility in Central and Eastern Europe. Retrieved from
  8. CSRmedia & EY Romania. (2015). Tendinte si realitati CSR in Romania. Retrieved from
  9. Cumpanasu, A., Calin, M. E., Gheorghe, D., Paisvante, I., Ana, R., & Norgesvel, J. R. (2009). Implicarea IMM-urilor in proiecte de responsabilitate sociala. Retrieved from
  10. Dyczkowska, J., Krasodomska, J., & Michalak, J. (2016). CSR in Poland: Institutional context, legal framework and voluntary initiatives. Accounting and Management Information Systems, 15(2), 206–254.Google Scholar
  11. EUR-Lex. (2003). EU recommendation 2003/361. Retrieved from
  12. EUR-Lex. (2011). The small business act for Europe. Retrieved from
  13. European Commission. (2001, 2005). Green paper—Promoting a European framework for CSR. Retrieved from Scholar
  14. European Commission. (2005). Mainstreaming CSR among SMEs.Google Scholar
  15. European Commission. (2011). Thinking big for small businesses.Google Scholar
  16. European Commission. (2015a). Annual report on European SMEs 2014/2015.Google Scholar
  17. European Commission. (n.d.). Definition of CSR. Retrieved from
  18. Grabara, J., Dura, C., & Drigă, I. (2016). Corporate social responsibility awareness in Romania and Poland: A comparative analysis. Economics and Sociology, 9(4), 344–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Horia, C. Responsabilitatea sociala, relevanta sau nu pentru intreprinderile mici si mijlocii? Retrieved from
  20. Iamandi, I. E., & Constantin, L. G. (2011). The corporate social responsibility model in Romania: A theoretical and practical approach for small and medium sized enterprises. The Romanian Economic Journal, 14(41), 25–46.Google Scholar
  21. Information Resources Management Association. (2013). Small and medium enterprises: Concepts, methodologies, tools, and applications. Southfield, MI: Idea Group.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Knopf, J., & Mayer-Scholl, B. (2013). Tips and tricks for advisors—Corporate social responsibility for small and medium-sized enterprises. Brussels: European Union.Google Scholar
  23. Mandl, I., & Dorr, A. (2007). CSR and competitiveness: European SMEs’ good practice. Vienna: Austrian Institute for SME Research.Google Scholar
  24. Mullerat, R. (2013). Corporate social responsibility: A European perspective. Miami-Florida European Union Center of Excellence. Retrieved from
  25. Netherlands Embassy in Romania (n.d.). Dutch policy on CSR. Retrieved from
  26. Palvolgyi, T., Szlavik, J., Nagypal, N. C., Fule, M., & Csete, M. (2009). Driving on CSR: SMEs in the automotive supply chain. In R. Barth & F. Wolff (Eds.), Corporate social responsibility in Europe: Rhetoric and realities. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.Google Scholar
  27. Perrini, F., Russo, A., & Tencati, A. (2007). CSR strategies of SMEs and large firms. Evidence from Italy. Journal of Business Ethics, 74, 285. Scholar
  28. Pienkovski, D. (2013). Institutional conditions of corporate social responsibility in Poland. Conference paper. Corporate Social Responsibility and Women’s Entrepreneurship around the Mare Balticum, Baltic Sea Academy.Google Scholar
  29. Pirnea, I. C., Olaru, M., & Angheluta, T. (2012). Study on the impact on promoting social responsibility in business performance for SMEs. Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition, 15(1/2012), 203–212.Google Scholar
  30. Popa, O. (2012). Corporate social responsibility—A new perspective for SMEs in Romania. Management&Marketing, 10(1/2012), 153–164.Google Scholar
  31. Popovska, M. (2013). CSR in Polish SMEs from the women perspective. Conference paper. Corporate Social Responsibility and Women’s Entrepreneurship around the Mare Balticum, Baltic Sea Academy.Google Scholar
  32. Popovska, M. (2016). CSR in Polish SMEs—From perception to infatuation. Examples of socially engaged firms from the Pomeranian Region. Scientific Journals of Poznan University of Technology, Series of Organization and Management, no. 68.Google Scholar
  33. RARE. (2005). Corporate social responsibility: Integrating a business and societal governance perspective. Berlin.Google Scholar
  34. Sen, S. (2011). Corporate social responsibility in small and medium enterprises: Application of stakeholder theory and social capital theory. DBA thesis, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW.Google Scholar
  35. Szczanowics, J., & Saniuk, S. (2016). Evaluation and reporting of CSR in SME sector. Management, 20(1), 96–110. De Gruyter.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Wiles, D. (2008). Sweden tops corporate social responsibility league (Cited by Yu, A. L. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and SMEs—Barriers and opportunities in a Swedish perspective. Master’s thesis. Stockholm University).Google Scholar
  37. Williamson, N., Stampe-Knippel, A., & Weber, T. (2014). Corporate social responsibility—National public policies in the European Union. Retrieved from
  38. Yu, A. L. (2010). Corporate social responsibility and SMEs—Barriers and opportunities in a Swedish perspective. Master’s thesis, Stockholm University.Google Scholar
  39. Zieba, K. (2015). CSR knowledge and perception in Polish SMEs: Evidence from the region of Pomerania. Social responsibility of organizations: Direction of changes by Rojek-Nowosielska, M., Publishing House of Wroclaw, University of Economics Wrocław.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvia Puiu
    • 1
  • Adam Krystian Wiśniewski
    • 2
  1. 1.Faculty of Economics and Business AdministrationUniversity of CraiovaCraiovaRomania
  2. 2.Faculty of Economic SciencesUniversity of Warmia and Mazury in OlsztynOlsztynPoland

Personalised recommendations