Shopping Mall Values, Customer Satisfaction, and Loyalty: The Moderation of Education Level in Morocco: An Abstract
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This paper investigates the effects of shopping center value dimensions on customer satisfaction and loyalty and the moderation effect of distinct levels of university education (Bachelor vs. Master/PhD) in Morocco, Africa. A shopping intercept survey generated 244 usable questionnaires. Structural equation modeling was used to test the research hypotheses. The findings show that utilitarian and hedonic values significantly affect customer loyalty, but not customer satisfaction. The socialization value significantly influences customer satisfaction, it does not affect customer loyalty to a shopping mall. Utilitarian and hedonic values affect customer loyalty to the mall.
Further, the university education level moderates the effects of utilitarian and nonutilitarian value dimensions on satisfaction and loyalty. In particular, the effect of shopping mall utilitarian value is stronger for higher than for lower educated customers. The effect of shopping mall hedonic value on satisfaction is stronger for higher than for lower educated customers. Its effect on loyalty to the shopping mall is also stronger for higher than for lower educated customers. Shopping mall relaxation value significantly influences only the satisfaction of lower educated customers. It has no significant effect on loyalty to the shopping mall. The effect of shopping mall socialization value on satisfaction is stronger for lower than for higher educated customers. Finally, the effect of shopping mall socialization value on satisfaction is stronger for higher than for lower educated customers.
Mall managers interested in Morocco and similar African countries should focus on factors that enhance the socialization value of the mall, especially when they target highly educated customers.