The Marketing of International Humanitarian Aid in a Changing Global Marketplace: An Abstract
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We have only just begun to make progress in theorizing about the concept of giving to 'distant others', contributing to the development of knowledge in this area, and building towards a greater understanding of charitable donor behavior and the role that marketing can play in international humanitarian aid (IHA). This work represents some initial steps into investigating the role of marketing in IHA and greater understanding of donor behaviour.
Using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) as a theoretical framework, we explore the concept of Justice Restoration Efficacy (JRE) to examine the intention to donate to distant others (IDDO) in IHA. For the purpose of testing, a multiple regression analysis was used to regress IDDO onto a revised TPB model that includes the concept of JRE. In order to test an extended model, an eight-section questionnaire was designed in order to carry out an online survey. All constructs were measured using 7-point, Likert-style questions. Psychometric properties of all variables are within recommended levels. Data collection resulted in a convenience sample of 411 charitable donors from across Canada (N = 199) and the USA (N = 212).
The adjusted variance explained by the model reaches 59% of IDDO. By looking at the individual contribution of each variable (i.e., standardized beta coefficients), we observe that JRE is the most important antecedent of IDDO with a 0.59, followed far behind by subjective norms with 0.20. The other three significant variables show beta coefficients no greater than 0.13 each. These results highlight what is most important to potential donors in deciding to help distant others, the ability to have an impact and restore justice. When it comes to distant others, it is no longer enough to support a cause or an organization, but the focus of the donor has become on what the donation can do and the change it can make.
The findings highlight that the predictors and influences on IDDO are different than for the intention to donate. As such, IDDO represents more than just a novel context in which to examine charitable giving but a separate, albeit related, construct. This study establishes the link between JRE and IDDO. This is the first use of the JRE concept in the non-profit marketing and charitable giving literature.