Biological Treatment of Agro-Industrial Waste

  • Nur Izyan Wan AzeleeEmail author
  • Nor Hasmaliana Abdul Manas
  • Daniel Joe Dailin
  • Aizi Nor Mazila Ramli
  • Shalyda Md Shaarani
Part of the Applied Environmental Science and Engineering for a Sustainable Future book series (AESE)


Agro-industrial waste is mostly composed of lignocellulosic biomass, which is inexpensive, renewable, and abundant. It provides a unique natural resource for cost-effective bioenergy collection. Agro-industries generate a wide number of waste products either in the form of solid or liquid. The production of agro-industrial waste is growing worldwide and these wastes cannot be disposed of directly on the ground without any treatment, as they will cause serious environmental concerns. The problem of disposal and management of these wastes is a major issue especially in developing countries nowadays. Hence these agro-industrial waste must be treated before discharging or reuse for other purposes by effective methods. The conventional methods require the use of harsh and toxic chemicals with high processing cost and high waste management cost. In serious consideration of the worldwide economic and environmental pollution issues, there has been increasing research interest in the management of the agro-industrial waste proposing value-added green technologies. Biological treatment is seen as one of the promising green biotechnologies that gives less harm to the environment while balance out the ecosystem. The biological treatment utilizes microorganisms mainly from the bacterial and fungal species to cope with the issue raised and also act as bioremediation. This chapter begins with an overview of agro-industrial waste and further describes a number of biological treatments performed together with its advantages and disadvantages. This chapter finally deals with the possibility of creating a sustainable practice in industries processing agricultural products. Several suggestions and recommendations for future considerations are also thoroughly highlighted. The ultimate goal of this biological treatment chapter is to prepare the agricultural waste for a cleaner process toward a better and safer product.


Agro-industrial waste Biological treatment Sustainable Green biotechnology Bioremediation 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nur Izyan Wan Azelee
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Nor Hasmaliana Abdul Manas
    • 1
  • Daniel Joe Dailin
    • 1
    • 2
  • Aizi Nor Mazila Ramli
    • 3
    • 5
  • Shalyda Md Shaarani
    • 4
  1. 1.Faculty of Engineering, School of Chemical and Energy EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Skudai, Johor BahruMalaysia
  2. 2.Institute of Bioproduct Development (IBD)Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM)Skudai, Johor BahruMalaysia
  3. 3.Faculty of Industrial Sciences and TechnologyUniversiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP)Gambang, KuantanMalaysia
  4. 4.Faculty of Chemical and Natural Resources EngineeringUniversiti Malaysia PahangGambang, KuantanMalaysia
  5. 5.Bio Aromatic Research Centre of ExcellenceUniversiti Malaysia PahangKuantan, PahangMalaysia

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