Advertisement

Preoperative Counseling

  • Jana Bregman
  • Janet Alexander
  • Moran LevinEmail author
Chapter
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Preoperative discussions with family members are an essential component of the early phases of patient care related to childhood cataracts. These conversations are detailed and complex, thus requiring the physician to set aside appropriate time and participate as both an active educator and listener. The physician will also need to coordinate the interdisciplinary needs of each unique patient. Appropriate parental expectations should be set, terminology should be introduced, and empathy should be used, particularly in addressing the concerns and needs of each family. The postoperative course after childhood cataract surgery often lasts for decades, so the family must be prepared for long-term care and follow-up. The family should understand that the physician-family-patient relationship will endure both triumphs and challenges requiring short- and long-term support from the medical team. Successful outcomes often depend on years of individualized vision rehabilitation and lifelong monitoring for complications.

Keywords

Cataract Congenital Pediatric Preoperative counseling Patient education Surgical risks Cataract complications 

References

  1. 1.
    Miller DT, Adam MP, Aradhya S, et al. Consensus statement: chromosomal microarray is a first-tier clinical diagnostic test for individuals with developmental disabilities or congenital anomalies. Am J Hum Genet. 2010;86(5):749–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.04.006.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American College of Medical Genetics (ACMG and commissioned by the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA)). Newborn screening: towards a uniform screening panel and system. Genetic Med. 2006;8(5 Suppl):S12–S252.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Hug D. Pediatric cataracts and lens anomalies. In: Nelson L, Olitsky S, editors. Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology. 6th ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2014. p. 238–57.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wright KW. Lens abnormalities. In: Wright KW, Spiegel PH, editors. Pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. 2nd ed. New York: Springer; 2003. p. 451–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Birch EE, Cheng C, Stager DR, et al. The critical period for surgical treatment of dense congenital bilateral cataracts. J AAPOS. 2009;13:67–71.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2008.07.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Birch EE, Stager DR. The critical period for surgical treatment of dense congenital unilateral cataract. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 1996;37(8):1532–8.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Birch EE, Stager DR. Prevalence of good visual acuity following surgery for congenital unilateral cataract. Arch Ophthalmol. 1988;106(1):40–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Brown SM, Archer S, Del Monte MA. Stereopsis and binocular vision after surgery for unilateral infantile cataract. J AAPOS. 1999;3(2):109–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jeffrey BG, Birch EE, Stager DR, et al. Early binocular visual experience may improve binocular sensory outcomes in children after surgery for congenital unilateral cataract. J AAPOS. 2001;5:209–16.  https://doi.org/10.1067/mpa.2001.115591.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lambert SR. The timing of surgery for congenital cataracts. J AAPOS. 2016;20:191–2.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2016.04.003.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Reeves R, et al. Is there a latent period for the surgical treatment of children with dense bilateral congenital cataracts? J AAPOS. 2006;10:30–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2005.10.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dave H, Phoenix V, Becker ER, Lambert SR. Simultaneous vs sequential bilateral cataract surgery for infants with congenital cataracts: visual outcomes, adverse events, and economic costs. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1050–4.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2010.136.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gonzalez LP, Pignaton W, Kusano PS, Módolo NS, Braz JR, Braz LG. Anesthesia-related mortality in pediatric patients: a systematic review. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2012;67(4):381–7. Review.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Habre W, Disma N, Virag K, Becke K, Hansen TG, Jöhr M, Leva B, Morton NS, Vermeulen PM, Zielinska M, Boda K, Veyckemans F, APRICOT Group of the European Society of Anaesthesiology Clinical Trial Network. Incidence of severe critical events in pediatric anesthesia (APRICOT): a prospective multicenter observational study in 261 hospitals in Europe. Lancet Respir Med. 2017;5(5):412–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Murat I, Constant I, Maud’huy H. Perioperative anesthetic morbidity in children: a database of 24,165 anaesthetics over a 30-month period. Paediatr Anaesth. 2004;14(2):158–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Irita K, Kawashima Y, Iwao Y, Seo N, Tsuzaki K, Morita K, Obara H. Annual mortality and morbidity in operating rooms during 2002 and summary of morbidity and mortality between 1999 and 2002 in Japan: a brief review. Masui. 2004;53(3):320–35. Review. Japanese.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Odegard KC, DiNardo JA, Kussman BD, Shukla A, Harrington J, Casta A, McGowan FX Jr, Hickey PR, Bacha EA, Thiagarajan RR, Laussen PC. The frequency of anesthesia-related cardiac arrests in patients with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2007;105(2):335–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Bharti N, Batra YK, Kaur H. Pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest and its mortality: a database of a 60-month period from a tertiary care pediatric center. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009;26(6):490–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Christensen RE, Lee AC, Gowen MS, Rettiganti MR, Deshpande JK, Morray JP. Pediatric perioperative cardiac arrest, death in the off hours: a report from wake up safe, the pediatric quality improvement initiative. Anesth Analg. 2018;127(2):472–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Murat I. Anaphylactic reactions during paediatric anaesthesia; results of the survey of the French Society of Paediatric Anaesthetists (ADARPEF) 1991–1992. Pediatr Anesth. 1993;3(6):339–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Tait AR, Malviya S, Voepel-Lewis T, Munro HM, Seiwert M. Risk factors for perioperative adverse respiratory events in children with upper respiratory tract infections. Anesthesiology. 2001;95(2):299–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Brady JE, Sun LS, Rosenberg H, Li G. Prevalence of malignant hyperthermia due to anesthesia in New York State, 2001–2005. Anesth Analg. 2009;109(4):1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Agarkar S, Gokhale VV, Raman R, et al. Retinal detachment after pediatric cataract surgery. Ophthalmology. 2018;125:36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Morrison DG, Lynn MJ, Freedman SF, Orge FH, Lambert SR, Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Corneal changes in children after unilateral cataract surgery in the IATS. Ophthalmology. 2015;122(11):2186–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Freedman SF, Lynn MG, Beck AD, Bothun ED, Orge FH, Lambert SR. Glaucoma-related adverse events in the first 5 years after unilateral cataract removal in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133(8):907–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Mataftsi A, Haidich AB, Kokkali S, Rabiah PK, Birch E, Stager DR Jr, Cheong-Leen R, Singh V, Egbert JE, Astle WF, Lambert SR, Amitabh P, Khan AO, Grigg J, Arvanitidou M, Dimitrakos SA, Nischal KK. Postoperative glaucoma following infantile cataract surgery: an individual patient data meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132(9):1059–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Plager DA, Lynn MJ, Buckley EG, Wilson ME, Lambert SR, Infant Aphakia Treatment Study Group. Complications, adverse events, and additional intraocular surgery 1 year after cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118(12):2330–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Plager DA, Yang S, Neely D, et al. Complications in the first year following cataract surgery with and without IOL in infants and older children. J AAPOS. 2002;6(1):9–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Trivedi RH, Wilson E. Posterior capsule opacification in pediatric eyes with and without traumatic cataract. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2015;41:1461–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Peterseim MW, Wilson ME. Bilateral intraocular lens implantation in the pediatric population. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:1261–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lambert SR, Lynn MJ, Hartmann EE, et al. Comparison of contact lens and intraocular lens correction of monocular aphakia during infancy. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132:676.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.531.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Plager DA, Lynn MJ, Buckley EG, et al. Complications, adverse events, and additional intraocular surgery 1 year after cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:2330–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2011.06.017.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wilson ME, Trivedi RH, Morrison DG, et al. The Infant Aphakia Treatment Study: evaluation of cataract morphology in eyes with monocular cataracts. J AAPOS. 2011;15:421–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2011.05.016.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Plager DA, Lipsky SN, Snyder SK, et al. Capsular management and refractive error in pediatric intraocular lenses. Ophthalmology. 1997;104:600–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0161-6420(97)30264-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Wilson ME, Trivedi RH, Burger BM. Eye growth in the second decade of life: implications for the implantation of a multifocal intraocular lens. Trans Am Ophthalmol Soc. 2009;107:120–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hug D, Nelson L. Harley’s pediatric ophthalmology. 6th ed. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia; 2014.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Wilson ME, Trivedi RH. Choice of intraocular lens for pediatric cataract surgery: survey of AAPOS members. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2007;33:1666–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Cromelin CH, Drews-Botsch C, Russell B, Lambert SR. Association of contact lens adherence with visual outcome in the infant Aphakia treatment study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2018;136:279.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2017.6691.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Lambert SR, Kraker RT, Pineles SL, et al. Contact Lens correction of Aphakia in children. Ophthalmology. 2018;125:1452–8.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ophtha.2018.03.014.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Awad AH, Mullaney PB, Al-Hamad A, et al. Secondary posterior chamber intraocular lens implantation in children. J AAPOS. 1998;2:269–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1091-8531(98)90082-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Lambert S, Lyons C. Childhood cataracts. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, editors. Taylor & Hoyt’s pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. 5th ed. London/New York: Elsevier; 2017. p. 346–61.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Drews-Botsch CD, Hartmann EE, Celano M. Predictors of adherence to occlusion therapy 3 months after cataract extraction in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS. 2012;16:150–5.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2011.12.149.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Beck AD, Freedman SF, Lynn MJ, et al. Glaucoma-related adverse events in the infant aphakia treatment study: 1-year results. Arch Ophthalmol. 2012;130:300–5.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archophthalmol.2011.347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Freedman SF, Lynn MJ, Beck AD, et al. Glaucoma-related adverse events in the first 5 years after unilateral cataract removal in the infant aphakia treatment study. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2015;133:907–14.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2015.1329.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mataftsi A, Haidich AB, Kokkali S, et al. Postoperative glaucoma following infantile cataract surgery: an individual patient data meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol. 2014;132:1059–67.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2014.1042.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rabiah PK. Frequency and predictors of glaucoma after pediatric cataract surgery. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:30–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-9394(03)00871-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Papadopoulos M, Khaw P. Childhood glaucoma. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, editors. Taylor & Hoyt’s pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. 5th ed. London/New York: Elsevier; 2017. p. 362–77.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Bothun ED, Lynn MJ, Christiansen SP, et al. Sensorimotor outcomes by age 5 years after monocular cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). J AAPOS. 2016;20:49–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2015.11.002.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Bothun ED, Lynn MJ, Christiansen SP, et al. Strabismus surgery outcomes in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) at age 5 years. J AAPOS. 2016;20(6):501–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    John AM, John ES, Hansberry DR, et al. Analysis of online patient education materials in pediatric ophthalmology. J AAPOS. 2015;19:430–4.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaapos.2015.07.286.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Morrison AK, Glick A, Yin HS. Health literacy: implications for child health. Pediatr Rev. 2019;40:263–77.  https://doi.org/10.1542/pir.2018-0027.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Children’s National Medical CenterWashington, DCUSA
  2. 2.University of Maryland School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

Personalised recommendations