• Saurabh Jain
  • Longyang Lin
  • Massimo Alioto


This chapter opens the book and provides a brief analysis of historical trends in digital systems. Highlighting the gradual evolution of the semiconductor industry towards distributed computing (e.g., Internet of things—IoT), the demand for increasingly lower power in the common case and much higher peak performance is discussed. This has led to the introduction of various popular techniques such as wide dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS). Then, the challenges posed by wide DVFS in both the clock and the data path are discussed, motivating the next chapters of the book.


Dynamic voltage frequency scaling (DVFS) Distributed computing Internet of things (IoT) Machine learning Artificial intelligence (AI) Energy trends Cost trends Semiconductor market S-curve Gompertz function Power budget Microprocessor trends Graphics processing unit (GPU) Digital signal processor (DSP) Koomey’s law Gene’s law Supercomputer Short-range radios Energy per AD conversion Power-limited systems Battery-powered systems Carrier modulation Time-driven systems Event-driven systems Duty cycling Wake-up Always-on Latency Intelligent sensor nodes Speech recognition Smart buildings Applications Computer vision Audio monitoring Dynamic energy Leakage energy Activity factor Switched capacitance Supply voltage Leakage current Clock cycle Wire delay Gate delay Leakage/dynamic energy ratio Wire/gate delay ratio 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Saurabh Jain
    • 1
  • Longyang Lin
    • 1
  • Massimo Alioto
    • 1
  1. 1.National University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore

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