Teaching with and about information and communications technologies
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In recent decades there has been a considerable increase in an educational policy focus on providing schools and teachers with information and communications technology (ICT) for use in education. Analyses of students’ acquisition of computer and information literacy (CIL) and computational thinking (CT) need to take into account the key role that schools and classrooms play in students’ development of these digital competencies. IEA’s International Computer and Information Literacy Study (ICILS) 2018 explored the influence that antecedent and process-related contextual variables located at the level of schools and classrooms are related to teaching with and about ICT. These analyses are based on data derived from the teacher, school principal, and ICT coordinator questionnaires. This chapter reviews variation in approaches to and variation in the use and availability of ICT across different national contexts and focuses on teachers’ familiarity with ICT, their views regarding its use for teaching and learning, and the extent to which it is used in classrooms. Furthermore, it reviews the emphasis teachers place on developing CIL and CT across different subject areas, and their relationship with the actual use of ICT in lessons. On average across countries, most teachers tended to have experience and familiarity with ICT. Most teachers tended to recognize the value of ICT use for teaching and were confident about using this technology. There were considerable differences across countries in the availability of ICT at schools, the extent of teacher collaboration, and conditions for professional learning, and teachers’ use of ICT in classrooms was still limited and depended on complexity of tasks and applications. Teachers’ confidence in using ICT, positive perceptions of pedagogical ICT use, and positive perceptions of teacher collaboration were positively associated with teacher emphasis on student learning of CIL and CT-related content.
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