Hemp Fiber as a Sustainable Raw Material Source for Textile Industry: Can We Use Its Potential for More Eco-Friendly Production?

  • Görkem Gedik
  • Ozan AvincEmail author
Part of the Sustainable Textiles: Production, Processing, Manufacturing & Chemistry book series (STPPMC)


Sustainable production defines an environmental friendly production that we produce without changing the balance of the nature. Processes and the utilized materials should be renewable, and our whole production should be harmless so that nature can recover itself in an indigenous way. All natural fibers are biodegradable and sustainable, and consequently, they are commonly called as biofibers. Providing a sustainable production chain for textile processes requires individual attention for each input in the first place. One of the most important parts of these inputs is raw material selection and therefore fiber supply. Right at this point, hemp fiber step forwards and shines out with its huge sustainable production potential for textile industry. In this chapter, sustainable and biodegradable hemp fiber, which is an alternative to cotton and petroleum-based synthetic fibers, for textile raw material sourcing is reviewed in detail. The parameters that make this fiber sustainable are also investigated. Present common and special uses and possible future innovative alternatives of hemp fibers for technical textiles production are also stated. Mainly, composite material production with this sustainable fiber is reviewed for a replacement of nonsustainable synthetic competitors. When sustainable composite materials are produced not only ecofriendly textile production is carried out but also other materials can be produced with an ecofriendly path leading to more sustainable world.


Hemp Hemp fiber Sustainable Sustainability Hemp composites Hemp textiles 


  1. 1.
    Blackburn RS (2009) Sustainable textiles life cycle and environmental impact. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gordon S, Hsieh YL (2007) Cotton: science and technology. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tobler-Rohr M (2011) Handbook of sustainable textile production. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ferrigno S, Gudagnini R, Tyrell K (2017) Is cotton conquering its chemical addiction? A review of pesticide use in global cotton production. Pesticide Action Network UK Report, BrightonGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kooistra K, Thermorshuizen A, Pyburn R (2006) The sustainability of cotton, Consequences for man and environment. Wageningen University Report no: 223. Wageningen, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    IEEP (Institute for European Environmental Policy) Stage I of a Report to Defra (2005) The environmental impacts of trade liberations and potential flanking measures. LondonGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Blackburn RS (2005) Biodegradable and sustainable fibres. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Li L, Frey M, Browning KJ (2010) Biodegradability study on cotton and polyester fabrics. J Eng Fibers Fabr 5(4):42–53Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Amaducci S, Scordia D, Liu FH, Zhang Q, Guo H, Testa G, Cosentino SL (2015) Key cultivation techniques for hemp in Europe and China. Ind Crop Prod 68:2–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Fike J (2016) Industrial hemp: renewed opportunities for an ancient crop. Crit Rev Plant Sci 35:406–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    van der Werf HMG (2004) Life cycle analysis of field production of fibre hemp, the effect of production practices on environmental impacts. Euphytica 140:13–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salentijn EMJ, Zhang Q, Amaducci S, Yang M, Trindade LM (2015) New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding. Ind Crop Prod 68:32–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Tanga K, Struik PC, Yin X, Thouminot C, Bjelková M, Stramkale V, Amaducci S (2016) Comparing hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivars for dual-purposeproduction under contrasting environments. Ind Crop Prod 87:33–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
  16. 16.
    Amaducci S, Pelatti F, Bonatti PM (2005) Fibre development in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) as affected by agrotechnique. J Industr Hemp 10(1):31–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Müssig J (2010) Industrial applications of natural fibres. Wiley, West SussexCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    van der Werf HMG (2002) Hemp production in France. J Industr Hemp 7(2):105–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    McPartland JM, Cutler S, McIntosh DJ (2004) Hemp production in aotearoa. J Industr Hemp 9(1):105–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    McPartland JM, Clarke RC, Watson DP (2000) Hemp diseases and pests. CABI Publishing, OxonGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van der Werf HMG, van Geel WCA, van Gils LJC, Haverkort AJ (1995) Nitrogen fertilization and row width affect self-thinning and productivity of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Field Crop Res 42:27–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Turunen L, van der Werf HMG (2007) The production chain of hemp and flax textile yarn and its environmental impacts. J Industr Hemp 12(2):43–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Yılmaz I, Akcaoz H, Ozkan B (2004) An analysis of energy use and input costs of cotton production in Turkey. New Medit N 2:58–64Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tahir PM, Ahmed AB, SaifulAzry SOA, Ahmed Z (2011) Retting processes of some bast plant fibers and its effect on fiber quality. A review. BioResources 6(4):5260–5281Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Riberio A, Pochart P, Day A, Mennuni S, Bono P, Baret J, Spadoni J, Mangin I (2015) Microbial diversity observed during hemp retting. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 99:4471–4484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bleuze L, Lashermes G, Alavoine G, Recous S, Chabbert B (2018) Tracking the dynamics of hemp dew retting under controlled environmental conditions. Ind Crop Prod 123:55–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nair GR, Lyew D, Yaylayan V, Raghavan V (2015) Application of microwave energy in degumming of hemp stems for the processing of fibres. Biosyst Eng 131:23–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nykter M, Kymalainen H, Thomsen AB, Lilholt H, Koponen H, Sjöberg A, Thygesen A (2008) Effects of thermal and enzymatic treatments and harvesting time on the microbial quality and chemical composition of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.). Biomass Bioenergy 32:392–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Liu M, Ale MT, Kalaczkowski B, Fernando D, Daniel G, Meyer AS, Thygesen A (2017) Comparison of traditional field retting and Phlebia radiata Cel 26 retting of hemp fibres for fibre-reinforced composites. AMB Express 7:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Candilo DM, Ranalli P, Bozzi C, Focher B, Mastoromei G (2000) Preliminary results of tests facing with the controlled retting of hemp. Ind Crop Prod 11:197–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Trunen L, Van der Werf HMG (2006) Life cycle analyses of hemp textile yarn – a comparison of three hemp fiber processing scenarios and a flax scenario – Report of EU Project Hemp-SYSGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Hurren CJ, Wang X, Dennis HGS, Clarke AFK (2002) Evaluation of bast fibre retting systems on hemp. 82nd Textile Institute Conference, Cairo, EgyptGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mazian B, Bergeret A, Benezet J, Malhautier L (2018) Influence of field retting duration on the biochemical, microstructural, thermal and mechanical properties of hemp fibres harvested at the beginning of flowering. Ind Crop Prod 116:170–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Liu M, Fernando D, Daniel G, Madsen B, Meyer AS, Ale MT, Thygesen A (2015) Effect of harvest time and field retting duration on the chemical composition, morphology and mechanical properties of hemp fibers. Ind Crop Prod 69:29–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Placet V, Day A, Beaugrand J (2017) The influence of unintended field retting on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of industrial hemp bast fibres. J Mater Sci 52:5759–5777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Liu M, Silva ASS, Fernando D, Meyer AS, Madsen B, Daniel G, Thygessen A (2016) Controlled retting of hemp fibres: effect of hydrothermal pre-treatment and enzymatic retting on the mechanical properties of unidirectional hemp/epoxy composites. Compos Part A 88:253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu J, Guan Z, Li Z (2018) Application of cryogenic and mechanical treatment in degumming of hemp stems. Biosyst Eng 174:144–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhang LL, Zhu RY, Chen CY, Feng XX (2008) Seawater-retting treatment of hemp and characterization of bacterial strains involved in the retting process. Process Biochem 43:1195–1201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Garcia-Jaldon C, Dupeyre D, Vignon MR (1998) Fibres from semi-retted hemp bundels by steam explosion treatment. Biomass Bioenergy 14(3):251–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gumpta PC, Sen K, Sen SK (1976) Degumming of decorticated ramie for textile purposes. Cellulose Chem Technol 10:285–291Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Henriksson G, Eriksson KEL, Kimmel L, Akin DE (1998) Chemical/physical retting of flax using detergent and oxalic acid at high pH. Text Res J 68(12):942–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fan X, Liu Z, Liu Z (2010) A novel chemical degumming process for ramie bast fiber. Text Res J 80(19):2046–2051CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Morrison WH, Akin DE, Ramaswamy GN, Baldwin B (1996) Evaluating chemical retted kenaf using chemical, histochemical and micro-spectrophotometric analysis. Text Res J 66(10):651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ramaswamy GN, Ruff CG, Boyd CR (1994) Effect of bacterial and chemical retting on kenaf fibre quality. Text Res J 64(5):305–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franck RR (2005) Bast and other plant fibres. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kozlowski RM (2012) Handbook of natural fibers, vol volume I. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kozlowski RM (2012) Handbook of natural fibers, vol volume II. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Jawaid M, Tahir PM, Saba N (2017) Lignocellulosic fibre and biomass-based composite materials. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Pickering KI, Efendy MGA, Le TM (2016) A review of recent developments in natural fibre composites and their mechanical performance. Compos Part A 83:98–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Long AC (2005) Design and manufacture of textile composites. Woodhead Publishing, Cambridge, UKCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Rana S, Fangueiro R (2016) Fibrous and textile materials for composite applications. Springer, SingaporeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Messiry ME (2017) Natural fiber textile composite engineering. Apple Academic Press, OakvilleCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Pil L, Bensadoun F, Pariset J, Verpoest I (2016) Why are designers fascinated by flax and hemp fibre composites? Compos Part A 83:193–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mazzanti V, Pariante R, Bonanno A, de Ballesteros OR, Mollica F, Filippone G (2019) Reinforcing mechanisms of natural fibers in green composites: role of fibers morphology in a PLA/hemp model system. Compos Sci Technol 180:51–59CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Zini E, Scandola M (2011) Green composites: an overview. Polym Compos 32(12):1905–1915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Miritoiu CM, Stanescu MM, Burada CO, Bolcu D, Padeanu A, Bolcu A (2019) Comparisons between some composite materials reinforced with hemp fibers. Mater Today Proc 12:499–507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rosa ADL, Cozzo G, Latteri A, Mancini G, Recca A, Cicala G (2013) A comparative life cycle assessment of a composite component for automotive. Chem Eng Trans 32:1723–1728Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Musio S, Müssig J, Amaducci S (2018) Optimizing hemp fiber production for high performance composite applications. Front Plant Sci 9:1702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Li X, Tabil LG, Panigrahi S (2007) Chemical treatments of natural fiber for use in natural fiber-reinforced composites: a review. J Polym Environ 15:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ray D, Sarkar BK, Rana AK, Rose NR (2001) Effect of alkali treated jute fibres on composite properties. Bull Mater Sci 24(2):129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Vaisanen T, Batello P, Lappalainen R, Tomppo L (2018) Modification of hemp fibers (Cannabis Sativa L.) for composite applications. Ind Crop Prod 111:422–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Mwaikambo LY, Ansell MP (1999) The effect of chemical treatment on the properties of hemp, sisal, jute and kapok for composite reinforcement. Die Angewandte Makromolekulare Chemie 272:108–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Morrison III WH, Archibald DD, Sharma HSS, Akin DE (2000) Chemical and physical characterization of water- and dew-retted flax fibers. Ind Crop Prod 12(1):39–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Panthapulakkal S, Sain M (2007) Injection-molded short hemp fiber/glass fiber- reinforced polypropylene hybrid composites-mechanical, water absorption and thermal properties. J Appl Polym Sci 103:2432–2441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Mohanty AK, Wibowo A, Misra M, Drzal LT (2004) Effect of process engineering on the performance of natural fiber reinforced cellulose acetate biocomposites. Compos Part A 35:363–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Sawpan MA, Pickering KL, Fernyhough A (2011) Improvement of mechanical performance of industrial hemp fibre reinforced polylactide biocomposites. Compos Part A 42:310–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hu R, Lim J (2011) Fabrication and mechanical properties of completely biodegrdable hemp fiber reinforced polylactic acid composites. J Compos Mater 41(13):1655–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Islam MS, Pickering KI, Foreman NJ (2010) Influence of alkali treatment on the interfacial and physico-mechanical properties of industrial hemp fibre reinforced polylactic acid composites. Compos Part A 41:596–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sarasini F, Tirilo J, Puglia D, Kenny JM, Dominici F, Santulli C, Tofani M, De Santis R (2015) Effect of different lignocellulosic fibres on poly(ɛ-caprolactone)-based composites for potential applications in orthotics. RSC Adv 5:23798–23809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Girones J, Lopez JP, Mutje P, Carvalho AJF, Curvelo AAS, Vilaseca F (2015) Natural fiber-reinforced thermoplastic starch composites obtained by melt processing. Compos Sci Technol 72:858–863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Li J, Ben G, Yang J (2014) Fabrication of hemp fiber-reinforced green composites with organoclay-filled poly(butylene succinate) matrix by pultrusion process. Sci Eng Compos Mater. 21(2):289–294Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jami T, Karade SR, Singh LP (2019) A review of the properties of hemp concrete for green building applications. J Clean Prod 239(1–17):117852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Niyigen C, Amziane S, Chateauneuf A (2019) Assessing the impact of calculation methods on the variability of Young’s modulus for hemp concrete material. Constr Build Mater 198:332–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lemeurs MD, Gle P, Menibus AHD (2018) Acoustical properties of hemp concretes for buildings thermalinsulation: application to clay and lime binders. Constr Build Mater 160:462–474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Gourley E, Gle P, Marceau S, Foy C, Moscardelli S (2017) Effect of water content on the acoustical and thermal properties of hemp concretes. Constr Build Mater 139:513–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Pantawee S, Sinsiri T, Jatarapitakkul C, Chindraprasirt P (2017) Utilization of hemp concrete using hemp shiv as coarse aggregate with aluminium sulfate [Al2(SO4)3] and hydrated lime [Ca(OH)2] treatment. Constr Build Mater 156:435–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Arizzi a BM, Sanchez IM, Molina E, Cultrone G (2018) Optimization of lime and clay-based hemp-concrete wall formulations for a successful lime rendering. Constr Build Mater 184:76–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Baduge SK, Mendis P, Nicolas RS, Nguyen K (2019) Performance of lightweight hemp concrete with alkali-activated cenosphere binders exposed to elevated temperature. Constr Build Mater 224:158–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Sinka M, Heede PV, Belie ND, Bajare D, Sahmenko G, Korjakins A (2018) Comparative life cycle assessment of magnesium binders as an alternative for hemp concrete. Resour Conserv Recycl 133:288–299CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rubesa IN, Markovic B, Gojevic A, Brdaric J (2018) Effect of hemp fibers on fire resistance of concrete. Constr Build Mater 184:473–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Textile Engineering DepartmentPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey

Personalised recommendations