• Sara Geenen
  • Boris VerbruggeEmail author


In this concluding chapter, we start by summarizing the main empirical contribution of this book, by focusing on diversity and connectivity in gold mining crystallizations, and on how these crystallizations are embedded in their broader institutional and ecological environment. We then turn to the main theoretical lessons, particularly for the literature on Global Production Networks (GPN). These theoretical lessons can be summarized as the need to pay more central attention to how informal activities are functionally integrated into these networks and to how these networks are shaped by their material beginnings. Finally, we develop a number of critical afterthoughts about the limitations of the approach taken by this book, which will hopefully inspire future research.


Artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) Industrial mining Gold ASM-LSM relations Global Production Networks (GPN) Embeddedness 


  1. Azmeh, S. (2014). Labour in global production networks: Workers in the qualifying industrial zones (QIZs) of Egypt and Jordan. Global Networks, 14(4), 495–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bair, J., Berndt, C., Boeckler, M., & Werner, M. (2013). Dis/articulating producers, markets, and regions: New directions in critical studies of commodity chains. Environment and Planning, 45, 2544–2552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bair, J., & Werner, M. (2011). Commodity chains and the uneven geographies of global capitalism: A disarticulations perspective. Environment and Planning, 43, 988–997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barrientos, S., Gereffi, G., & Rossi, A. (2011). Economic and social upgrading in global production networks: A new paradigm for a changing world. International Labour Review, 150(2–3), 319–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunker, S. (1984). Modes of extraction, unequal exchange, and the progressive underdevelopment of an extreme periphery: The Brazilian Amazon, 1600–1980. American Journal of Sociology, 89(5), 1017–1064.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Carswell, G., & De Neve, G. (2013). Labouring for global markets: Conceptualising labour agency in global production networks. Geoforum, 44, 62–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Clifford, M. J., Perrons, R. K., Ali, S. H., & Grice, T. A. (Eds.). (2018). Extracting innovations: Mining, energy, and technological change in the digital age. Boca Raton: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  8. Doherty, B. (2019). Collapse of PNG deep-sea mining venture sparks calls for moratorium. Retrieved 14 November 2019 from
  9. Geenen, S., & Verweijen, J. (2017). Explaining fragmented and fluid mobilization in gold mining concessions in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Extractive Industries and Society, 4(4), 758–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hickey, S. and du Toit, A. (2007). Adverse incorporation, social exclusion and chronic poverty (CPRC Working Paper 81). University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  11. Phillips, N. (2011). Informality, global production networks and the dynamics of ‘adverse incorporation’. Global Networks, 11(3), 380–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Selwyn, B. (2011). Beyond firm-centrism: Re-integrating labour and capitalism into global commodity chain analysis. Journal of Economic Geography, 12, 1–22.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.IOBUniversity of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium
  2. 2.HIVAKU LeuvenLeuvenBelgium

Personalised recommendations