Advertisement

Immigration Federalism, Multinational States and Subnational Communities: Comparing Flanders and Quebec

  • Catherine XhardezEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Federalism and Internal Conflicts book series (FEINCO)

Abstract

This chapter compares the dynamics of international migration in two multinational federations—Belgium and Canada—with an eye to highlighting arguments in favour and against ‘immigration federalism’ in two subnational communities: Flanders and Quebec. In brief, the chapter’s comparison shows that Flemish and Québécois political elites have deployed different approaches to using immigrant integration regulation as a way of strengthening their respective claims for recognising cultural and linguistic diversity along national lines as well as for influencing the balance of power between subnational and national jurisdictions.

Keywords

International migration Immigration federalism Flanders Quebec 

References

  1. Abts, Koen, Emmanuel Dalle Mulle, and Rudi Laermans. 2019. Beyond Issue Diversification: N-VA and the Communitarisation of Political, Economic and Cultural Conflicts in Belgium. West European Politics 42 (4): 848–872.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2019.1576407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adam, Ilke. 2013a. Les Entités fédérées belges et l’intégration des immigrés: politiques publiques comparées. Science Politique. Bruxelles, Belgique: Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  3. ———. 2013b. Immigrant Integration Policies of the Belgian Regions: Sub-State Nationalism and Policy Divergence after Devolution. Regional & Federal Studies 23 (5): 547–569.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13597566.2013.789024.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Adam, Ilke, and Dirk Jacobs. 2014. Divided on Immigration, Two Models for Integration. The Multilevel Governance of Immigration and Integration in Belgium. In The Politics of Immigration in Multi-Level States. Governance and Political Parties, ed. Eve Hepburn and Ricard Zapata-Barrero, 65–85. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.Google Scholar
  5. Adam, Ilke, and Marco Martiniello. 2013. Divergences et convergences des politiques d’intégration dans la Belgique multinationale. Le cas des parcours d’intégration pour les immigrés. Revue européenne des migrations internationales 29 (2): 77–93.  https://doi.org/10.4000/remi.6404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Adam, Ilke, Marco Martiniello, and Andrea Rea. 2018. Regional Divergence in the Integration Policy in Belgium. One Country, Three Integration Programs, One Citizenship Law. In Governing Diversity. Migrant Integration and Multiculturalism in North America and Europe, ed. Andrea Rea, Emmanuelle Bribosia, Isabelle Rorive, and Djordje Sredanovic, 235–255. Brussels: Éditions de l’Université de Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  7. Baglay, Sasha, and Delphine Nakache. 2014a. Immigration Federalism in Canada: Provincial and Territorial Nominee Programs (PTNPs). In Immigration Regulation in Federal States, ed. Sasha Baglay and Delphine Nakache, 95–116. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. ———, eds. 2014b. Immigration Regulation in Federal States. International Perspectives on Migration. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-8604-1.Google Scholar
  9. Barker, Fiona. 2007. Redefining the Nation: Sub-State Nationalism and the Political Challenges of Immigrant Integration. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
  10. ———. 2010. Learning to Be a Majority: Negotiating Immigration, Integration and National Membership in Quebec. Political Science 62 (1): 11–36.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0032318710370585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. ———. 2015. Nationalism, Identity and the Governance of Diversity. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.  https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137339317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bélanger, Éric, Frédérick Bastien, and François Gélineau, eds. 2013. Les Québécois aux urnes: Les partis, Les médias et les citoyens en campagne. Paramètres. Montréal: Presses de l’Université de Montréal.Google Scholar
  13. Bélanger, Éric, Richard Nadeau, Ailsa Henderson, and Eve Hepburn. 2018. The National Question and Electoral Politics in Quebec and Scotland. Democracy, Diversity, and Citizen Engagement Series 3. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Beyens, Stefanie, Kris Deschouwer, Emilie van Haute, and Tom Verthé. 2017. Born Again, or Born Anew: Assessing the Newness of the Belgian New-Flemish Alliance (N-VA). Party Politics 23 (4): 389–399.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068815601347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blais, André, ed. 2008. To Keep or to Change First Past the Post? The Politics of Electoral Reform. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  16. Bouchard, Gérard. 2011. What Is Interculturalism. McGill Law Journal 56 (2): 435–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Caestecker, Frank, Bernadette Renauld, Nicolas Perrin, and Thierry Eggerickx. 2016. Belg worden de geschiedenis van de Belgische nationaliteitsverwerving sinds 1830. Mechelen: Wolters Kluwer.Google Scholar
  18. Carens, Joseph H. 1995. Immigration, Political Community, and the Transformation of Identity: Quebec’s Immigration Politics in Critical Perspective. In Is Quebec Nationalism Just?: Perspectives from Anglophone Canada, ed. Joseph H. Carens, 20–81. Montreal; Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Carlier, Jean-Yves, ed. 2010. L’étranger face au droit. Bibliothèque de la Faculté de droit de l’Université Catholique de Louvain 49. Brussels: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  20. Chouinard, Tommy. 2018. C’est la “question de l’urne”, dit Couillard. La Presse, September 11.Google Scholar
  21. Clement, Jan, and Mieke Van De Putte. 2007. De bevoegdheidsverdeling inzake vreemdelingen en allochtonen. In Burgerschap, inburgering, migratie, ed. Frank Judo and Godfried Geudens, 27–46. Brussels: Larcier.Google Scholar
  22. Daniel, Dominique. 2006. La Politique d’immigration du Québec. In Politiques publiques: Le Québec comparé, ed. Jean Crête, 43–69. Québec: Presses de l’Université Laval.Google Scholar
  23. De Galembert, Claire, Olivier Rozenberg, and Cécile Vigour, eds. 2014. Faire parler le parlement. Méthodes et enjeux de l’analyse des débats parlementaires pour les sciences sociales. Droit et Société. Recherches et Travaux. Paris: LGDJ – Lextenso.Google Scholar
  24. De Winter, Lieven. 2006. Multi-Level Party Competition and Coordination in Belgium. In Devolution and Electoral Politics, 76–95. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  25. De Winter, Lieven, Marc Swyngedouw, and Patrick Dumont. 2006. Party System(s) and Electoral Behaviour in Belgium: From Stability to Balkanisation. West European Politics 29 (5): 933–956.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380600968836.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Deschouwer, Kris. 2009. The Rise and Fall of the Belgian Regionalist Parties. Regional & Federal Studies 19 (4–5): 559–577.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13597560903310279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ———. 2012. The Politics of Belgium. 2nd ed. Comparative Government and Politics. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Dion, Mathieu. 2018. La CAQ et l’immigration: Huit questions à François Legault. Radio-Canada, mai 2018. https://ici.radio-canada.ca/nouvelle/1101318/caq-immigration-francois-legault-questions-mathieu-dion.
  29. Erk, Jan. 2002. Le Québec entre la Flandre et la Wallonie: Une comparaison des nationalismes sous-étatiques belges et du nationalisme québécois. Recherches sociographiques 43 (3): 499.  https://doi.org/10.7202/000609ar.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. ———. 2005. From Vlaams Blok to Vlaams Belang: The Belgian Far-Right Renames Itself. West European Politics 28 (3): 493–502.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380500085681.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. ———. 2014. FPTP Ain’t All That Bad: Nationalist Parties, Immigrants, and Electoral Systems in Québec and Flanders. In The Politics of Immigration in Multi-Level States, ed. Eve Hepburn and Ricard Zapata-Barrero, 223–2406. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Fournier, Bernard, and Min Reuchamps, eds. 2009. Le Fédéralisme en Belgique et au Canada: comparaison sociopolitique. 1st ed. Ouvertures sociologiques. Bruxelles: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  33. Gagnon, Alain-G., and Jean-Denis Garon. 2019. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Asymmetries in the Canada Federation: An Exploration into the Policy Fields of Immigration and Manpower Training. A Country Study on Constitutional Asymmetry in Canada. In Constitutional Asymmetry in Multinational Federalism, ed. Patricia Popelier and Maja Sahadžić, 77–104. Cham: Springer International Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-11701-6_4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gagnon, Alain-G., and Raffaele Iacovino. 2007. Federalism, Citizenship and Quebec. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.  https://doi.org/10.3138/9781442688094.Google Scholar
  35. Gagnon, Alain-G., and Jean-Charles St-Louis, eds. 2016. Les conditions du dialogue au Québec: laïcité, réciprocité, pluralisme. Collection Débats. Montréal: Éditions Québec Amérique.Google Scholar
  36. Gagnon, Alain-G., Micheline Milot, Leslie Seidle, and François Boucher. 2014. Rapport présenté au Ministère de l’immigration, de la diversité et de l’inclusion en vue d’élaborer un nouvel énoncé de politique. Montréal. http://www.midi.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/recherches-statistiques/ETU_AmenagDiversite_GagnonMilotSeidleBoucher.pdf.
  37. Ganty, Sarah, and Pauline Delgrange. 2015. Heurs et malheurs des parcours d’accueil et d’intégration des étrangers en Belgique. Revue du droit des étrangers (185): 511–528.Google Scholar
  38. Garnier, Adele. 2018. Resettled Refugees and Work in Canada and Quebec: Humanitarianism and the Challenge of Mainstream Socioeconomic Participation. In Refugee Resettlement: Power, Politics, and Humanitarian Governance, ed. Adele Garnier, Liliana Lyra Jubilut, and Kristin Bergtora Sandvik, 118–138. Studies in Forced Migration 38. New York: Berghahn Books.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Garon, Francis. 2015. Policy-Making for Immigration and Integration in Québec: Degenerative Politics or Business as Usual? Policy Studies 36 (5): 487–506.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01442872.2015.1089984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gerring, John. 2017. Qualitative Methods. Annual Review of Political Science 20 (1): 15–36.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-polisci-092415-024158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Goodman, Sara Wallace. 2010. Integration Requirements for Integration’s Sake? Identifying, Categorising and Comparing Civic Integration Policies. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (5): 753–772.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13691831003764300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. ———. 2014. Civic Integration and Membership Politics in Western Europe. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Guibernau, Montserrat. 1999. Nations Without States: Political Communities in a Global Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  44. Gulasekaram, Pratheepan, and S. Karthick Ramakrishnan. 2015. The New Immigration Federalism. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hawkins, Freda. 1988. Canada and Immigration: Public Policy and Public Concern. 2nd ed. Canadian Public Administration Series. Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hepburn, Eve. 2009. Introduction: Re-Conceptualizing Sub-State Mobilization. Regional & Federal Studies 19 (4–5): 477–499.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13597560903310204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. ———. 2011. “Citizens of the Region”: Party Conceptions of Regional Citizenship and Immigrant Integration. European Journal of Political Research 50 (4): 504–529.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6765.2010.01940.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hepburn, Eve, and Ricard Zapata-Barrero, eds. 2014. The Politics of Immigration in Multi-Level States. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK.  https://doi.org/10.1057/9781137358530.Google Scholar
  49. Hobsbawm, Eric J. 1992. Nations and Nationalism since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Houle, France. 2014. Implementing Québec Intercultural Policy Through the Selection of Immigrants. In Immigration Regulation in Federal States, ed. Sasha Baglay and Delphine Nakache, 117–138. International Perspectives on Migration. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Iacovino, Raffaele. 2015. Contextualizing the Quebec Charter of Values: Belonging Without Citizenship in Quebec. Canadian Ethnic Studies 47 (1): 41–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ignatieff, Michael. 1994. Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux.Google Scholar
  53. Jacobs, Dirk. 2004. Alive and Kicking? Multiculturalism in Flanders. JMS: International Journal on Multicultural Societies 6 (2): 280–299.Google Scholar
  54. Jeram, Sanjay, and Eleni Nicolaides. 2018, July 1–21. Intergovernmental Relations on Immigrant Integration in Canada: Insights from Quebec, Manitoba, and Ontario. Regional & Federal Studies.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13597566.2018.1491841.
  55. Jeram, Sanjay, Arno van der Zwet, and Verena Wisthaler. 2016. Friends or Foes? Migrants and Sub-State Nationalists in Europe. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 42 (8): 1229–1241.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1082286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jonghe, Delphine de, and Marie Doutrepont. 2012. Obtention de la nationalité et volonté d’intégration. Courrier hebdomadaire du CRISP 2152–2153 (27): 1.  https://doi.org/10.3917/cris.2152.0005.
  57. Joppke, Christian. 2004. The Retreat of Multiculturalism in the Liberal State: Theory and Policy. The British Journal of Sociology 55 (2): 237–257.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2004.00017.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. ———. 2007. Beyond National Models: Civic Integration Policies for Immigrants in Western Europe. West European Politics 30 (1): 1–22.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380601019613.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. ———. 2017. Civic Integration in Western Europe: Three Debates. West European Politics 40 (6): 1153–1176.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402382.2017.1303252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Joppke, Christian, and F.L. Seidle, eds. 2012. Immigrant Integration in Federal Countries. Thematic Issues in Federalism 2. Montreal; Kingston: McGill-Queen’s University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Karmis, Dimitrios, and Alain-G. Gagnon. 1996. Fédéralisme et identités collectives au Canada et en Belgique: des itinéraires différents, une fragmentation similaire. Canadian Journal of Political Science/Revue canadienne de science politique 29 (3): 435–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Keating, Michael. 1996. Nations Against the State: The New Politics of Nationalism in Quebec, Catalonia and Scotland: The New Politics of Nationalism in Quebec, Catalonia and Scotland. Basingstoke; New York: Macmillan St Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 2001. Plurinational Democracy: Stateless Nations in a Post-Sovereignty Era. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kelle, Udo, Gerald Prein, and Katherine Bird. 1995. Computer-Aided Qualitative Data Analysis: Theory, Methods and Practice. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  65. Kelley, Ninette, and Michael J. Trebilcock. 2010. The Making of the Mosaic: A History of Canadian Immigration Policy. 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  66. Kostakopoulou, Dora. 2010. The Anatomy of Civic Integration: The Anatomy of Civic Integration. The Modern Law Review 73 (6): 933–958.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2230.2010.00825.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kostov, Chris. 2008. Canada-Quebec Immigration Agreements (1971–1991) and Their Impact on Federalism. American Review of Canadian Studies 38 (1): 91–103.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02722010809481822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kymlicka, Will. 2001. Immigrant Integration and Minority Nationalism. In Minority Nationalism and the Changing International Order, ed. Michael Keating and John McGarry, 61–79. Oxford: Oxford University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1093/0199242143.003.0004.
  69. Labelle, Micheline. 2015. Politique d’immigration au Québec. In L’Encyclopédie canadienne. Toronto: Historica. https://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/fr/article/politique-dimmigration-du-quebec.
  70. Laxer, Emily, Rachael Dianne Carson, and Anna C. Korteweg. 2014. Articulating Minority Nationhood: Cultural and Political Dimensions in Québec’s Reasonable Accommodation Debate. Nations and Nationalism 20 (1): 133–153.  https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12046.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Loobuyck, Patrick, and Dirk Jacobs. 2010. Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Integration Policy in Belgium and Flanders. Canadian Journal for Social Research/Revue canadienne de recherche sociale 3 (1): 29–40.Google Scholar
  72. Lutz, Philipp. 2019, April. Reassessing the Gap-Hypothesis: Tough Talk and Weak Action in Migration Policy? Party Politics.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1354068819840776.
  73. Martiniello, Marco. 1995. Philosophies de l’intégration en Belgique. Hommes et migrations 1193 (1): 24–29.  https://doi.org/10.3406/homig.1995.2569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Martiniello, Marco, and Andrea Rea. 2004. Affirmative Action: des discours, des politiques et des pratiques en débat. Collection Carrefours 2. Louvain-la-Neuve: Academia-Bruylant.Google Scholar
  75. May, Paul. 2016. Ideological Justifications for Restrictive Immigration Policies: An Analysis of Parliamentary Discourses on Immigration in France and Canada (2006–2013). French Politics 14 (3): 287–310.  https://doi.org/10.1057/s41253-016-0004-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Montigny, Éric, and François Gélineau. 2019. Boussole électorale et configuration d’un système partisan: le cas du Québec. In Démocratie(s), parlementarismes(s) et légitimité(s)/Democracy(ies), Parliamentarism(s) and Legitimacy(ies), ed. Philippe Poirier and Nadim Fahrat, 163–184. Brussels: Bruylant.Google Scholar
  77. Newton, Lina. 2012. Policy Innovation or Vertical Integration? A View of Immigration Federalism from the States. Law & Policy 34 (2): 113–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Oakes, Leigh, and Jane Warren. 2009. Language, Citizenship and Identity in Quebec. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  79. Paquet, Mireille. 2016. La fédéralisation de l’immigration au Canada. Collection Politique mondiale. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. ———. 2019. Province-Building and the Federalization of Immigration in Canada. Toronto; Buffalo; London: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  81. Pauwels, Teun. 2011. Explaining the Strange Decline of the Populist Radical Right Vlaams Belang in Belgium: The Impact of Permanent Opposition. Acta Politica 46 (1): 60–82.  https://doi.org/10.1057/ap.2010.17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pilet, Jean-Benoit. 2005. The Adaptation of the Electoral System to the Ethno-Linguistic Evolution of Belgian Consociationalism. Ethnopolitics 4 (4): 397–411.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17449050500348642.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Poirier, Johanne. 2009. Le partage des compétences et les relations intergouvernementales: la situation au Canada. In Le Fédéralisme en Belgique et au Canada, ed. Bernard Fournier and Min Reuchamps, 107–122. Bruxelles: De Boeck.Google Scholar
  84. Pommée, Yanaël. 2017. Parcours d’intégration en communauté germanophone: de la construction d’un problème public à l’analyse d’une politique d’intégration. Master Thesis, Louvain-la-Neuve: UCLouvain, FOPES.Google Scholar
  85. Proksch, Sven-Oliver, and Jonathan B. Slapin. 2015. The Politics of Parliamentary Debate: Parties, Rebels, and Representation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9781139680752.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Reichhold, Stephan. 2016. L’accueil et l’intégration des nouveaux arrivants au Québec: particularités du cadre juridique et financier des mesures d’intégration, Public conference. Toronto: The Glendon School of Public and International Affairs.Google Scholar
  87. RepResent, Consortium EOS. 2019, June 4. Les flamands et les wallons ont voté pour des partis différents le 26 mai – mais leurs avis divergent moins sur les politiques publiques qu’ils souhaitent. CEVIPOL (blog). http://cevipol.ulb.ac.be/sites/default/files/20190605_note_for_the_media_flamands_et_wallons_ont_vote_differemment_br_v2_compl.pdf.
  88. Rodriguez, Cristina. 2018. Enforcement, Integration, and the Future of Immigration Federalism. Journal on Migration and Human Security 5 (2): 509–540.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Rokkan, Stein. 2009. Citizens, Elections, Parties: Approaches to the Comparative Study of the Processes of Development. ECPR Press Classics. Colchester: ECPR Press.Google Scholar
  90. Romainville, Céline. 2015. Dynamics of Belgian Plurinational Federalism: A Small State Under Pressure. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review 38 (2): 225–250.Google Scholar
  91. Schertzer, Robert. 2015. Intergovernmental Relations in Canada’s Immigration System: From Bilateralism Towards Multilateral Collaboration. Canadian Journal of Political Science 48 (2): 383–412.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S000842391500027X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Schmidt, Vivien A. 2008. Discursive Institutionalism: The Explanatory Power of Ideas and Discourse. Annual Review of Political Science 11 (1): 303–326.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.polisci.11.060606.135342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. ———. 2010. Taking Ideas and Discourse Seriously: Explaining Change Through Discursive Institutionalism as the Fourth “New Institutionalism”. European Political Science Review 2 (1): 1–25.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S175577390999021X.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Simeon, Richard. 1990. Why Did the Meech Lake Accord Fail? In Canada: The State of the Federation, 15–40. Institute of Intergovernmental Relations: Kingston.Google Scholar
  95. Spiro, Peter J. 2001. Fédéralisme et immigration: modèles et tendances. Revue internationale des sciences sociales 167 (1): 71.  https://doi.org/10.3917/riss.167.0071.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Strazzari, Davide. 2012. The Scope and the Legal Limits of the “Immigration Federalism”: Some Comparative Remarks from the American, Belgian and the Italian Experiences. European Journal of Legal Studies 5 (2): 95–137.Google Scholar
  97. Swenden, W. 2014. Federalism and Regionalism in Western Europe: A Comparative and Thematic Analysis. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  98. Swenden, Wilfried, Marleen Brans, and Lieven De Winter. 2006. The Politics of Belgium: Institutions and Policy Under Bipolar and Centrifugal Federalism. West European Politics 29 (5): 863–873.  https://doi.org/10.1080/01402380600968729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Teney, Céline, and Dirk Jacobs. 2007. Le droit de vote des étrangers en Belgique: le cas de Bruxelles. Migrations Société 114 (6): 151–168.  https://doi.org/10.3917/migra.114.0151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tessier, Kevin. 1995. Immigration and the Crisis in Federalism: A Comparison of the United States and Canada. Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 3: 211–244.Google Scholar
  101. Tessier, Charles, and Éric Montigny. 2016. Untangling Myths and Facts: Who Supported the Québec Charter of Values? French Politics 14 (2): 272–285.  https://doi.org/10.1057/fp.2016.1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Tremblay, Arjun. 2019. Diversity in Decline?: The Rise of the Political Right and the Fate of Multiculturalism. Cham: Springer International Publishing.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02299-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Varsanyi, Monica W., Paul G. Lewis, Doris Marie Provine, and Scott Decker. 2012. A Multilayered Jurisdictional Patchwork: Immigration Federalism in the United States. Law & Policy 34 (2): 138–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vineberg, Robert. 1987. Federal-Provincial Relations in Canadian Immigration. Canadian Public Administration/Administration publique du Canada 30 (2): 299–317.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1754-7121.1987.tb00085.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Vliegenthart, Rens. 2007. Framing Immigration and Integration: Facts, Parliament, Media and Anti-Immigrant Party Support in the Netherlands. Amsterdam: Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam. http://dare.ubvu.vu.nl/bitstream/1871/13082/5/8067.pdf.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wodak, Ruth, and Teun A. van Dijk, eds. 2000. Racism at the Top: Parliamentary Discourses on Ethnic Issues in Six European States. The Investigation, Explanation and Countering of Xenophobia and Racism, v. 2. Klagenfurt: Drava Verlag.Google Scholar
  107. Woehrling, José. 2000. Les droits et libertés dans la construction de la citoyenneté, au Canada et au Québec. In Droits fondamentaux et citoyenneté, ed. Michel Coutu, Pierre Bosset, Caroline Gendreau, and Daniel Villeneuve, 269–302. Montréal: Thémis.Google Scholar
  108. Xhardez, Catherine. 2016, October. The Integration of New Immigrants in Brussels: An Institutional and Political Puzzle. Brussels Studies.  https://doi.org/10.4000/brussels.1434.
  109. ———. 2017. Intégrer pour exister? Nationalisme sous-étatique et intégration des immigrés en Flandre et au Québec. Paris; Bruxelles: Sciences Po Paris & Université Saint-Louis – Bruxelles.Google Scholar
  110. Zapata-Barrero, Ricard, ed. 2009. Immigration and Self-Government of Minority Nations. Collection Diversitas, no. 3. Brussels; New York: P.I.E. Peter Lang.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Concordia UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations