Advertisement

Norway—The World Leader in BEV Adoption

  • Erik FigenbaumEmail author
Chapter
  • 23 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mobility book series (LNMOB)

Abstract

Norway is the leading per capita BEV market in the world. The share of BEVs in the fleet exceeded 5% in December 2017 with another 2.5% being PHEVs. The market shares of BEVs and PHEVs in 2017 were 20% and 18% respectively. The total market share of BEVs and PHEVs in 2018 was well above 40% and in 2019 exceeded 50%. These vehicles have easily been adopted by Norwegian households. 4 out of 5 BEV owners, however, own another vehicle, giving them the option to swap vehicles when the range is too short. A strong incentive package has been introduced since 1990. The political targets which these incentives are intended to support have developed over the years. While these incentives were initially introduced to allow for experimentation with electric vehicles, and subsequent industrialization efforts, they are now geared towards meeting climate policy targets of reducing transportation sector greenhouse gas emissions. These incentives induced 20 years of BEV niche market experimentation and led to a fleet of 3000 BEVs by 2009. The long-term stability of BEV policies, the public awareness of BEVs created by their owners, the competences developed in the niche markets, and the strong incentive package, became a window of opportunity for the traditional passenger vehicle importers. When BEVs became available from their brands from 2010, they could import and sell them with immediate success using their vast national dealer networks.

Keywords

User experiences Multi Level Perspective (MLP) Policy and incentives Market development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work has been financed by the research council of Norway under the grants 267848 and 225564, the latter as part of the EU FP7/ERA-NET Electromobility + program, as well as the Norwegian Public Roads Administrations and Institute of Transport Economics Emiroad project.

References

  1. Assum, T., Kolbenstvedt, M., & Figenbaum, E. (2014). The future of electromobility in Norway—some stakeholder perspectives. TØI report. 1385/2014. Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publikasjoner/framtidig-elektromobilitet-i-norge-aktorenes-perspektiver-article33111-8.html.
  2. Dagsavisen. (2018). (News article in Norwegian). “Elbil bonanza”. June 4th, 2018.Google Scholar
  3. Dine Penger. (2016). (News article in Norwegian). «Stort prisfall for elektrisk storselger». Dine Penger Nr. 6 2016.Google Scholar
  4. Drivkraft Norge. (2018). Fuel price statistics. www.drivkraftnorge.no.
  5. Elbilbarometer. (2018). Data from a survey of vehicle buying intentions carried out by Opinion AS in January 2018 for the EV Association and Nordic Energy Research. Presentation at Nordic EV Summit February 1–2, 2018.Google Scholar
  6. Eurostat. (2018a). Mean and median income by household type—EU-SILC survey. http://appsso.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/nui/show.do?dataset=ilc_di04&lang=en.
  7. Eurostat. (2018b). Comparative price levels of consumer goods and services. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Comparative_price_levels_of_consumer_goods_and_services.
  8. Eurostat. (2018c). Passenger vehicles in the EU. Downloaded August 17, 2018. http://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statistics-explained/index.php/Passenger_cars_in_the_EU.
  9. Fearnley, N., Pfaffenbichler, P., & Figenbaum, E. (2015). E-vehicle policies and incentives—Assessment and recommendations. TØI Report 1421/2015. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics.Google Scholar
  10. Fetene, G. M., Kaplan, S., Mabit, S. L., Jensen, A. F., & Prato, C. G. (2017). Harnessing big data for estimating the energy consumption and driving range of electric vehicles. Transportation Research Part D, 54(2017), 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Figenbaum, E. (2018). Electromobility status in Norway—Mastering long distances—The last hurdle to mass adoption. TØI report 1627/2018. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publications/electromobility-status-in-norway-mastering-long-distances-the-last-hurdle-to-mass-adoption-article34903-29.html.
  12. Figenbaum, E. (2017). Perspectives on Norway’s supercharged electric vehicle policy. Environmental Innovations and Societal Transitions, 25(2017), 14–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eist.2016.11.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Figenbaum, E., & Kolbenstvedt, M. (2016). Learning from Norwegian battery electric and plug-in hybrid vehicle users. Results from a survey of vehicle owners. TØI report 1492/2016. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publications/learning-from-norwegian-battery-electric-and-plug-in-hybrid-vehicle-users-results-from-a-survey-of-vehicle-owners-article33869-29.html.
  14. Figenbaum, E., & Kolbenstvedt, M. (2015). Competitive electric town transport. Main results from COMPETT-an Electromobility+project. TØI-report 1422/2015. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publications/competitive-electric-town-transport-main-results-from-compett-and-electromobility-project-article33368-29.html.
  15. Figenbaum, E., & Weber, C. (2016). Experimental testing of plug-in hybrid vehicles. TØI report 1539/2016. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publications/experimental-testing-of-plug-in-hybrid-vehicles-co2-emission-energy-consumption-and-local-pollution-article34298-29.html.
  16. Figenbaum, E., Assum, T., & Kolbenstvedt, M. (2015). Electromobility in Norway—Experiences and opportunities. Research in Transportation Economics, 50, 29–38.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.retrec.2015.06.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Figenbaum, E., Kolbenstvedt, M., & Elvebakk, B. (2014). Electric vehicles—Environmental, economic and practical aspects. As seen by current and potential users. TØI, Report1329/2014. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publications/electric-vehicles-environmental-economic-and-practical-aspects-as-seen-by-current-and-potential-users-article32644-29.html.
  18. Galvin, R. (2017). Energy consumption effects of speed and acceleration in electric vehicles: Laboratory case studies and implications for drivers and policy makers. Transportation Research Part D, 53, 234–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Geels, F. W. (2012). A socio-technical analysis of low-carbon transitions. Introducing the multi-level perspective into transport studies. Journal of Transport Geography, 24, 471–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gjensidige. (2018). (press release in Norwegian). «Miljøbiler gir dårligere trafikksikkerhet» . Pressemelding. Gjensidige. June 4th, 2018.Google Scholar
  21. Haakana, A., Laurikko, J., Granström, R., & Hagman, R. (2013, December). Assessing range and performance of electric vehicles in Nordic driving conditions—Project Final Report. Norden—Energy and Transport. Nordisk Energiforskning.Google Scholar
  22. Hjorthol, R., Engebretsen, Ø., & Uteng, T. P. (2014). (in Norwegian). «Den nasjonale reisevaneundersøkelsen 2013/14 – nøkkelrapport». TØI rapport 1383/2014. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publikasjoner/den-nasjonale-reisevaneundersokelsen-2013-14-nokkelrapport-article32973-8.html.
  23. Hyundai. (2018). (press release in Norwegian). «Rekordsalg av Hyundai Kona electric: 6969 orders in two weeks. http://www.mynewsdesk.com/no/hyundai-motor-norway-as/pressreleases/rekordsalg-av-hyundai-kona-electric-6-969-ordre-paa-to-uker-2546447.
  24. Høye, A. (2017). (in Norwegian). «Trafikksikkerhetseffekter av bilenes kollisjonssikkerhet, vekt og kompatibilitet». TØI rapport 1580/2017. Institute of Transport Economics. https://www.toi.no/publikasjoner/trafikksikkerhetseffekter-av-bilenes-kollisjonssikkerhet-vekt-og-kompatibilitet-article34632-8.html.
  25. Kolbenstvedt, M., & Assum, T. (2018). The sales of electric vehicles—The role of the salesepeople and the customers’ assessments. TØI report 1639/2018. Oslo, Norway: Institute of Transport Economics.Google Scholar
  26. Ministry of Climate and Environment. (2018). Norway’s Seventh National communication. Under the framework convention of climate change. https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/52d65a62e2474bafa21f4476380cffda/t-1563e.pdf.
  27. Ministry of Transport and Communications. (2002). Road safety in Norway. Strategy 2002–2011. https://www.regjeringen.no/globalassets/upload/kilde/sd/bro/2002/0001/ddd/pdfv/160260-road_safety.pdf.
  28. National budget. (2018). (in Norwegian). Meld St. 1 (2017–2018). «Nasjonalbudsjettet 2018». https://www.statsbudsjettet.no/upload/Statsbudsjett_2018/dokumenter/pdf/stm.pdf.
  29. NPRA. (2018). Dataset from the Norwegian vehicle register, fleet of BEVs and PHEVs per 01.01.2018. Provided by the Norwegian Public Roads Administration.Google Scholar
  30. NTP. (2017). (in Norwegian). Innst. 460 S. (2016–2017). «Innstilling fra transport- og kommunikasjonskomiteen om Nasjonal transport plan 2018–2029 – BERIKTIGET». Stortinget 2017. https://www.stortinget.no/globalassets/pdf/innstillinger/stortinget/2016-2017/inns-201617-460s.pdf.
  31. NVE. (2016). (in Norwegian). “Hva betyr elbiler for strømnettet? NVE rapport 74/2016. ISBN: 978-82-410-1527-4.Google Scholar
  32. SSB. (2018a). Energy price statistics. Statistics Norway.Google Scholar
  33. SSB. (2018b). Table 10453: «Husholdninger med utvalgte varige forbruksvarer (prosent) 1976–2012)». Statistics Norway.Google Scholar
  34. SSB. (2018c). Statistics Norway. 08940: Greenhouse gases, by source, energy product and pollutant 1990–2017. https://www.ssb.no/en/statbank/table/08940.

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Transport EconomicsOsloNorway

Personalised recommendations