Examining Trends of Youthful Offenders

  • Tom D. Kennedy
  • David Detullio
  • Danielle H. Millen
Part of the SpringerBriefs in Psychology book series (BRIEFSPSYCHOL)


Data collected by the U.S. Department of Justice Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) and other sources are presented to examine juvenile crime trends beginning as early as the 1960s. To provide context, demographics of the United States adolescent population is discussed, including trends based on age, gender, race, and type of crime. Violent crime and homicide rates are explored. Recent trends in juvenile courts and cases where adolescents and children are tried as adults are considered. Additionally, multiple facets of facilities that care for young offenders and the services they provide are described.


Delinquency Trends Rates 


  1. Blumstein, A., & Wallman, J. (2006). The crime drop and beyond. Annual Review of Law and Social Science, 2, 125–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cree, R. A., Bitsko, R. H., Robinson, L. R., Holbrook, J. R., Danielson, M. L., Smith, C., … Peacock, G. (2018). Health care, family, and community factors associated with mental, behavioral, and developmental disorders and poverty among children aged 2–8 years— United States, 2016. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(50), 1377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Ghandour, R. M., Sherman, L. J., Vladutiu, C. J., Ali, M. M., Lynch, S. E., Bitsko, R. H., & Blumberg, S. J. (2019). Prevalence and treatment of depression, anxiety, and conduct problems in US children. The Journal of Pediatrics, 206, 256–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Greenwood, P. W., & S. Turner. (2011). Juvenile crime and juvenile justice. In J. Q. Wilson, & J. Petersilia (Eds.), Crime and public policy (pp. 88–129). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Griffin, P., Addie, S., Adams, B., & Firestine, K. (2011). Trying juveniles as adults: An analysis of state transfer laws and reporting. Washington, DC: US Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.Google Scholar
  6. Lehmann, P. S., Chiricos, T., & Bales, W. D. (2018). Juveniles on trial: Mode of conviction and the adult court sentencing of transferred juveniles. Crime & Delinquency, 64(5), 563–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. (n.d.). Online. Available: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Washington, D.C.: OJJDP.
  8. Redding, R.E. (2008). Juvenile transfer laws: An effective deterrent to delinquency? Available: [October 2019].
  9. Redding, R. E. (2016). One size does not fit all: The deterrent effect of transferring juveniles to criminal court. Criminology & Public Policy, 15, 939.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sickmund, M., Sladky, T. J., Kang, W., & Puzzanchera, C. (2019). Easy Access to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement. Available:
  11. Teplin, L. A., McClelland, G. M., Abram, K. M., & Mileusnic, D. (2005). Early violent death among delinquent youth: A prospective longitudinal study. Pediatrics, 115(6), 1586–1593.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. U.S. Bureau of the Census. (2019). Current Population Survey - Historical Poverty Tables. OJJDP Statistical Briefing Book. Online. Available: Released on February 28, 2019 (poverty).
  13. Unruh, D. K., Gagnon, J. C., & MaGee, C. (2018). Community reintegration for young offenders in the United States of America. In Incarcerated youth transitioning back to the community (pp. 205–219). Singapore: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Zane, S. N., Welsh, B. C., & Mears, D. P. (2016). Juvenile transfer and the specific deterrence hypothesis: Systematic review and meta‐analysis. Criminology & Public Policy, 15(3), 901–925.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tom D. Kennedy
    • 1
  • David Detullio
    • 1
  • Danielle H. Millen
    • 1
  1. 1.Nova Southeastern UniversityFort LauderdaleUSA

Personalised recommendations