Advertisement

The Design Process

Has a Systematic Design Process Been Applied to Artificial Knees?
  • Peter S. Walker
Chapter
  • 32 Downloads

Abstract

Everything which has been designed has been subject to some design process. The simplest process involves several steps: defining a need or conceiving an idea for something useful; defining the design criteria, what exactly the design is intended to achieve; formulating possible solutions; testing those solutions; and then reaching a final design. This simple process can be made more realistic by accounting for the trial and error which is always involved, by the interactions between various specialists, and by the different time points when new ideas can emerge. This has been termed controlled convergence by Stuart Pugh Ph.D. Testing the ideas in a more in-depth way as the process proceeds is critical and is necessary for ensuring the safety and efficacy of the final design. The design processes of the early artificial knee designs of Gunston, Freeman and Swanson, Townley, and Kodama and Yamamoto were analyzed, to determine their effectiveness. From today, future advances can be achieved by setting more stringent and demanding design criteria to achieve yet greater reliability, functionality, and low cost.

Keywords

Artificial knee design Design process Design criteria Controlled convergence Systematic design Testing methods Safety and efficacy 

References

  1. Brand RA, Mont MA, Manring MM. Biographical sketch: themistocles gluck. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2011;469:1525–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cross N. Engineering design methods. London: Wiley; 2008.Google Scholar
  3. Gluck T. Referat über die durch das Moderne Chirurgische Experiment gewonnen positive Resultate (Report on the positive results obtained by the modern surgical experiment). Arch fklin Chir. 1891;41:187–239.Google Scholar
  4. Gunston FH. Polycentric knee arthroplasty. Prosthetic simulation of normal knee movement. J Bone Joint Surg. 1971;53(2):272–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Pritchett J. Obituary: Charles O. Townley. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2009;67(1):308–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Pugh S. Total design: integrated methods for successful product engineering. Wokingham: Publ Addison Wesley; 1991.Google Scholar
  7. Taguchi G, Clausing D. Robust quality. Harv Bus Rev. 1990:65–75.Google Scholar
  8. Townley CO. Total knee arthroplasty. A personal retrospective and prospective review. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1988;236:8–22.Google Scholar
  9. Walker PS, Shoji H. Development of a stabilizing knee prosthesis employing physiological principles. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1973;94:222–33.Google Scholar
  10. Wilson JN, Lettin AWF, Scales JT. 20 years of evolution of the Stanmore hinged total knee replacement. Conference of total knee replacement, institution of mechanical engineers, London, 16–18 Sept 1974.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter S. Walker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Orthopedic SurgeryNew York UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations