The Sol-Gel Chemistry of Oxides from Alkoxides

  • Alain C. Pierre


This chapter is focused on the chemical transformations of alkoxides or precursors derived from alkoxides in solution, to synthesize oxide sol-gel materials. It follows a pattern similar to Chap.  2. After addressing the structure of alkoxides, their hydrolysis and condensation reactions are next described, followed by a short review of the behavior of a few simple oxides made from these precursors: boron, silicon, aluminum, zirconium, and titanium oxides. The chemistry of silicon alkoxide is a special case, as it has seen a tremendous expansion during the last 20 years. The applications of glycol complexed silanes and polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxanes (POSS) are summarized in special paragraphs. However, the functionalization of organo-alkoxysilane is largely connected to the very rich domain of hybrid organic-inorganic materials, and hence many of its aspects are treated separately in Chap.  10. The mixing of alkoxides with other alkoxides or precursors comes in a further section. Very interesting new sol-gel procedures, such as non-hydrolytic routes in water-free solvents, appear in the last section of this chapter along with their short review.


Alkoxides Hydrolysis Condensation Functionalization Alkoxysilanes POSS Non-hydrolytic process 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alain C. Pierre
    • 1
  1. 1.allée des écureuilsUniversité Claude Bernard-Lyon 1ROCHETAILLEE SUR SAONEFrance

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