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Conclusion

  • John Torday
  • William Miller Jr.
Chapter
  • 13 Downloads

Abstract

All science began as description, skewed through our subjective senses (Bohm 1980). Physics, chemistry, and biology were all established within these same circumstances. However, the two former disciplines have ultimately become “hard” mechanistic sciences by being thoroughly grounded within prediction, testable, and refutable. Despite its so-called mechanisms, only biology has remained descriptive (Nicholson 2012; Moss 2012). Roadblocks have limited our understanding of the origin and development of biological forms, and have hindered the advancement of the biological sciences (Torday 2013). Yet, when biology is deconstructed in reverse in both time and space back to its unicellular origins, then its evolution can be followed forward from generation to generation (Torday and Rehan 2012).

Keywords

Living machines Ambiguity Interactome Holobiont Fitness Natural cellular engineering Cognition Mutation accumulation theory Aging Dying Phenotype as agent Development and phylogeny Epigenetic inheritance Niche construction Morbidity and mortality Terminal addition Physiologic stress Water–land transition Homeobox genes Lipofibroblast Tinbergen’s four questions Proximate and ultimate causation Asthma Endothermy Depression Testes Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny Organizer Binomial nomenclature Epigenetic development 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Torday
    • 1
  • William Miller Jr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Deptartment of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and GynecologyHarbor–UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA
  2. 2.Physician/Independent researcherBanner Health/J.C.Lincoln Health SystemsParadise ValleyUSA

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