• John Torday
  • William Miller Jr.


All science began as description, skewed through our subjective senses (Bohm 1980). Physics, chemistry, and biology were all established within these same circumstances. However, the two former disciplines have ultimately become “hard” mechanistic sciences by being thoroughly grounded within prediction, testable, and refutable. Despite its so-called mechanisms, only biology has remained descriptive (Nicholson 2012; Moss 2012). Roadblocks have limited our understanding of the origin and development of biological forms, and have hindered the advancement of the biological sciences (Torday 2013). Yet, when biology is deconstructed in reverse in both time and space back to its unicellular origins, then its evolution can be followed forward from generation to generation (Torday and Rehan 2012).


Living machines Ambiguity Interactome Holobiont Fitness Natural cellular engineering Cognition Mutation accumulation theory Aging Dying Phenotype as agent Development and phylogeny Epigenetic inheritance Niche construction Morbidity and mortality Terminal addition Physiologic stress Water–land transition Homeobox genes Lipofibroblast Tinbergen’s four questions Proximate and ultimate causation Asthma Endothermy Depression Testes Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny Organizer Binomial nomenclature Epigenetic development 


  1. Amaral FGD, Cipolla-Neto J (2018) A brief review about melatonin, a pineal hormone. Arch Endocrinol Metab 62(4):472–479CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. Aronson L (2019) Elderhood. Bloomsbury Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  3. Avery ME, Mead J (1959) Surface properties in relation to atelectasis and hyaline membrane disease. AMA J Dis Child 97:517–523PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bacallao R, Fine LG (1989) Molecular events in the organization of renal tubular epithelium: from nephrogenesis to regeneration. Am J Phys 257:F913–F924CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baluška F (2009) Cell-cell channels, viruses, and evolution. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1178:106–119CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Baluška F, Miller WB Jr (2018) Senomic view of the cell: senome versus genome. Commun Integr Biol 11(3):1–9PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Berner RA, Vandenbrooks JM, Ward PD (2007) Evolution. Oxygen and evolution. Science 316:557–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Besnard V, Wert SE, Stahlman MT, Postle AD, Xu Y, Ikegami M, Whitsett JA (2009) Deletion of scap in alveolar type II cells influences lung lipid homeostasis and identifies a compensatory role for pulmonary lipofibroblasts. J Biol Chem 284:4018–4030CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Bloch K (1992) Sterol molecule: structure, biosynthesis, and function. Steroids 57:378–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bloom M, Evans E, Mouritsen OG (1991) Physical properties of the fluid lipid-bilayer component of cell membranes: a perspective. Q Rev Biophys 24:293–397Google Scholar
  11. Bohm D (1980) Wholeness and the implicate order. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  12. Bosch RJ, Rodríguez-Puyol D, Bover J, Rodríguez-Puyol M (1999) Parathyroid hormone-related protein: roles in the glomerulus. Exp Nephrol 7:212–216Google Scholar
  13. Burcham ZM, Pechal JL, Schmidt CJ, Bose JL, Rosch JW, Benbow ME, Jordan HR (2019) Bacterial community succession, transmigration, and differential gene transcription in a controlled vertebrate decomposition model. Front Microbiol 10:745CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Carroll SB (2005a) Endless forms most beautiful. W.W. Norton and Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Carroll SB (2005b) Evolution at two levels: on genes and form. PLoS Biol 3:e245CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. Cavalier-Smith T (2000) Membrane heredity and early chloroplast evolution. Trends Plant Sci 5:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cazzolla Gatti R (2018) Endogenosymbiosis: from hypothesis to empirical evidence towards a Unified Symbiogenetic theory. Theor Biol Forum 111:13–26PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Cerny L, Torday JS, Rehan VK (2008) Prevention and treatment of bronchopulmonary dysplasia: contemporary status and future outlook. Lung 186:75–89CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Chipman AD (2010) Parallel evolution of segmentation by co-option of ancestral gene regulatory networks. BioEssays 32:60–70CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Clements JA, Nellenbogen J, Trahan HJ (1970) Pulmonary surfactant and evolution of the lungs. Science 169:603–604CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen S (1997) EGF and its receptor: historical perspective. Introduction. J Mammary Gland Biol Neoplasia 2:93–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cotler J, Duan LM, Hou PY, Wilczek F, Xu D, Yin ZQ, Zu C (2016) Experimental test of entangled histories. Preprint arXiv:1601.02943Google Scholar
  23. Cristofalo V, Roberts J, Adelman R (1972) Exploration in aging. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Csete M, Walikonis J, Slawny N, Wei Y, Korsnes S, Doyle JC, Wold B (2001) Oxygen-mediated regulation of skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and adipogenesis in culture. J Cell Physiol 189:189–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Daniels CB, Orgeig S (2003) Pulmonary surfactant: the key to the evolution of air breathing. News Physiol Sci 18:151–157PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Daniels CB, Orgeig S, Sullivan LC, Ling N, Bennett MB, Schürch S, Val AL, Brauner CJ (2004) The origin and evolution of the surfactant system in fish: insights into the evolution of lungs and swim bladders. Physiol Biochem Zool 77:732–749CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Darwin C (1859) On the origin of species by means of natural selection, or the preservation of favoured races in the struggle for life. John Murray, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Dasgupta C, Sakurai R, Wang Y, Guo P, Ambalavanan N, Torday JS, Rehan VK (2009) Hyperoxia-induced neonatal rat lung injury involves activation of TGF-{beta} and Wnt signaling and is protected by rosiglitazone. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 296:L1031–L1041CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  29. de Duve C (1999) Evolution of the peroxisome. Ann N Y Acad Sci 168(2):369–381Google Scholar
  30. de Laat SW, Boonstra J, Defize LH, Kruijer W, van der Saag PT, Tertoolen LG, van Zoelen EJ, den Hertog J (1999) Growth factor signaling. Int J Dev Biol 43:681–691PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. De Loof A (2015a) How to deduce and teach the logical and unambiguous answer, namely L = ∑C, to “What is Life?” using the principles of communication? Commun Integr Biol 8:1–11Google Scholar
  32. De Robertis EM, Larraín J, Oelgeschläger M, Wessely O (2000) The establishment of Spemann’s organizer and patterning of the vertebrate embryo. Nat Rev Genet 1:171–181CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Deacon TW (2011) Incomplete nature: how mind emerged from matter. WW Norton, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. Deuber C, Terhaar M (2011) Hyperoxia in very preterm infants: a systematic review of the literature. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs 25:268–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DiRocco DP, Kobayashi A, Taketo MM, McMahon AP, Humphreys BD (2013) Wnt4/β-catenin signaling in medullary kidney myofibroblasts. J Am Soc Nephrol 24:1399–1412CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  36. Dobzhansky T (1973) Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution. Am Biol Teach 35:125–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ferrara N, Komici K, Corbi G, Pagano G, Furgi G, Rengo C, Femminella GD, Leosco D, Bonaduce D (2014) β-adrenergic receptor responsiveness in aging heart and clinical implications. Front Physiol 4:396CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Foley J, Longely BJ, Wysolmerski JJ, Dreyer BE, Broadus AE, Philbrick WM (1998) PTHrP regulates epidermal differentiation in adult mice. J Invest Dermatol 111:1122–1128Google Scholar
  39. Frisch RE (1994) The right weight: body fat, menarche and fertility. Proc Nutr Soc 53:113–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Futuyma D (1998) Evolutionary biology. Sinauer Associates, SunderlandGoogle Scholar
  41. Gardinier JD, Rostami N, Juliano L, Zhang C (2018) Bone adaptation in response to treadmill exercise in young and adult mice. Bone Rep 8:29–37CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Gentili C, Morelli S, de Boland AR (2003) Characterization of PTH/PTHrP receptor in rat duodenum: effects of ageing. J Cell Biochem 88:1157–1167CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Gerhart J, Kirschner M (1997) Cells, embryos, and evolution. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  44. Gilbert SF (2014) Symbiosis as the way of eukaryotic life: the dependent co-origination of the body. J Biosci 39:201–209PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Gómez-Linton DR, Alavez S, Alarcón-Aguilar A, López-Diazguerrero NE, Konigsberg M, Pérez-Flores LJ (2019) Some naturally occurring compounds that increase longevity and stress resistance in model organisms of aging. Biogerontology 20:583–603CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Gould SJ, Vrba ES (1982) Exaptation—a missing term in the science of form. Paleobiology 8:4–15Google Scholar
  47. Grobstein C (1967) Mechanisms of organogenetic tissue interaction. Natl Cancer Inst Monogr 26:279–299PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. Hall BK (2012) Parallelism, deep homology, and evo-devo. Evol Dev 14:29–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Haque MM, Nilsson EE, Holder LB, Skinner MK (2016) Genomic clustering of differential DNA methylated regions (epimutations) associated with the epigenetic transgenerational inheritance of disease and phenotypic variation. BMC Genomics 17:418CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Hastings RH, Duong H, Burton DW, Deftos LJ (1994) Alveolar epithelial cells express and secrete parathyroid hormone-related protein. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 11:701–706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hayflick L (2007) Biological aging is no longer an unsolved problem. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1100:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Henry J (2001) Moving heaven and earth: copernicus and the solar system. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  53. Horowitz NH (1945) On the evolution of biochemical syntheses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 31:153–157CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  54. Hughes NC, Jacobs DK (2005) The end of everything: metazoan terminal addition. Evol Dev 7:497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Irie N, Kuratani S (2011) Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals vertebrate phylotypic period during organogenesis. Nat Commun 2:248CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. Ishikawa M, Ouchi Y, Akishita M, Kozaki K, Toba K, Namiki A, Yamaguchi T, Ito H, Orimo H (1995) Age-related decrease in the effect of parathyroid hormone-related protein on cytosolic free calcium level and tension in rat aortic smooth muscle. Naunyn Schmiedeberg’s Arch Pharmacol 351:517–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Jacobs DK, Hughes NC, Fitz-Gibbon ST, Winchell CJ (2005) Terminal addition, the Cambrian radiation and the Phanerozoic evolution of bilaterian form. Evol Dev 7:498–514CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Jobe AH (2016) Mechanisms of lung injury and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Am J Perinatol 33:1076–1078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kalimi M (1984) Glucocorticoid receptors: from development to aging. A review. Mech Ageing Dev 24:129–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Karaplis AC, Vautour L (1997) Parathyroid hormone-related peptide and the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor in skeletal development. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 6:308–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Khan AH, Zou Z, Xiang Y, Chen S, Tian XL (2019) Conserved signaling pathways genetically associated with longevity across the species. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol basis Dis 1865:1745–1755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kirkwood T (1977) Evolution of ageing. Nature 270:301–304CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Kovacs T, Csongei V, Feller D, Ernszt D, Smuk G, Sarosi V, Jakab L, Kvell K, Bartis D, Pongracz JE (2014) Alteration in the Wnt microenvironment directly regulates molecular events leading to pulmonary senescence. Aging Cell 13:838–849CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  64. Kurihara H, Sakai T (2017) Cell biology of mesangial cells: the third cell that maintains the glomerular capillary. Anat Sci Int 92:173–186CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. Li YF, Langholz B, Salam MT, Gilliland FD (2005) Maternal and grandmaternal smoking patterns are associated with early childhood asthma. Chest 127(4):1232–1241PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Martinez AA, Steventon B (2018) On the nature and function of organizers. Development 145:dev159525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Matsui Y, Okamura D (2015) Mechanisms of germ-cell specification in mouse embryos. BioEssays 27(2):136–143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maturana HR, Varela FJ (1980) Problems in the neurophysiology of cognition. In: Autopoiesis and cognition. Springer, DordrechtCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mayr E (1961) Cause and effect in biology. Science 131:1501–1506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Medawar PB (1952) An unsolved problem of biology. H.K. Lewis & Co., LondonGoogle Scholar
  71. Meziani F, Van Overloop B, Schneider F, Gairard A (2005) Parathyroid hormone-related protein-induced relaxation of rat uterine arteries: influence of the endothelium during gestation. J Soc Gynecol Investig 12:14–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Miller WB (2013) The microcosm within: evolution and extinction in the hologenome. Universal Publishers, Boca RatonGoogle Scholar
  73. Miller WB (2016a) Cognition, information fields and hologenomic entanglement: evolution in light and shadow. Biology (Basel) 5(2):21Google Scholar
  74. Miller WB (2016b) The eukaryotic microbiome: origins and implications for fetal and neonatal life. Front Pediatr 4:96CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  75. Miller WB Jr, Torday JS (2018) Four domains: the fundamental unicell and Post-Darwinian cognition-based evolution. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 140:49–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Miller WB Jr, Torday JS (2019) Reappraising the exteriorization of the mammalian testes through evolutionary physiology. Commun Integr Biol 12:38–54PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. Mitchell P (1961) Coupling of phosphorylation to electron and hydrogen transfer by a chemi-osmotic type of mechanism. Nature 191:144–148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Morris SC (1993) The fossil record and the early evolution of the metazoa. Nature 361:219–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Morris DG, Sheppard D (2006) Pulmonary emphysema: when more is less. Physiology (Bethesda) 21:396–403Google Scholar
  80. Moss L (2012) Is the philosophy of mechanism philosophy enough? Stud Hist Phil Biol Biomed Sci 43:164–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Nestler EJ (2016) Transgenerational epigenetic contributions to stress responses: fact or fiction? PLoS Biol 14:e1002426CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. Nicholas TE (1996) Pulmonary surfactant: no mere paint on the alveolar wall. Respirology 1:247–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nicholson DJ (2012) The concept of mechanism in biology. Stud Hist Phil Biol Biomed Sci 43:152–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Noble D (2012) A theory of biological relativity: no privileged level of causation. Interface Focus 2:55–64CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. Noble R, Noble D (2017) Was the watchmaker blind? or was she one-eyed? Biology 6:47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Nowacki M, Landweber LF (2009) Epigenetic inheritance in ciliates. Curr Opin Microbiol 12:638–643CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. Olsson L, Levit GS, Hoßfeld U (2017) The “Biogenetic law” in zoology: from Ernst Haeckel’s formulation to current approaches. Theory Biosci 136:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Payne JL, Groves JR, Jost AB, Nguyen T, Moffitt SE, Hill TM, Skotheim JM (2012) Late paleozoic fusulinoidean gigantism driven by atmospheric hyperoxia. Evolution 66:2929–2939CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Perez MF, Lehner B (2019) Intergenerational and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in animals. Nat Cell Biol 21:143–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Perry SF, Carrier DR (2006) The coupled evolution of breathing and locomotion as a game of leapfrog. Physiol Biochem Zool 79:997–999CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Perry SF, Wilson RJ, Straus C, Harris MB, Remmers JE (2001) Which came first, the lung or the breath? Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 129:37–47CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. Rachner TD, Hofbauer LC, Göbel A, Tsourdi E (2019) Novel therapies in osteoporosis: PTH-related peptide analogs and inhibitors of sclerostin. J Mol Endocrinol 62:R145–R154CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  93. Rehan VK, Fong J, Lee R, Sakurai R, Wang ZM, Dahl MJ, Lane RH, Albertine KH, Torday JS (2011) Mechanism of reduced lung injury by high-frequency nasal ventilation in a preterm lamb model of neonatal chronic lung disease. Pediatr Res 70:462–466CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Rehan VK, Liu J, Sakurai R, Torday JS (2013) Perinatal nicotine-induced transgenerational asthma. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 305:L501–L507CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. Rehan V, Torday J (2003) Hyperoxia augments pulmonary lipofibroblast-to-myofibroblast transdifferentiation. Cell Biochem Biophys 38:239–250CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Ricarte FR, Le Henaff C, Kolupaeva VG, Gardella TJ, Partridge NC (2018) Parathyroid hormone(1–34) and its analogs differentially modulate osteoblastic Rankl expression via PKA/SIK2/SIK3 and PP1/PP2A-CRTC3 signaling. J Biol Chem 293:20200–20213CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. Richardson MK, Keuck G (2002) Haeckel’s ABC of evolution and development. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc 77:495–528CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Richmond DL, Oates AC (2012) The segmentation clock: inherited trait or universal design principle? Curr Opin Genet Dev 22:600–666CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Roth G, Hess G (1972) Changes in the mechanisms of hormone and neurotransmitter action during aging: current status of the role of receptor and post-receptor alterations. Mech Ageing Dev 20:75–194Google Scholar
  100. Rubin LP, Kifor O, Hua J, Brown EM, Torday JS (1994) Parathyroid hormone (PTH) and PTH-related protein stimulate surfactant phospholipid synthesis in rat fetal lung, apparently by a mesenchymal-epithelial mechanism. Biochim Biophys Acta 1223:91–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sáenz JP, Grosser D, Bradley AS, Lagny TJ, Lavrynenko O, Broda M, Simons K (2015) Hopanoids as functional analogues of cholesterol in bacterial membranes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 112:11971–11976CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  102. Scarpace PJ, Tumer N, Mader SL (1991) Beta-adrenergic function in aging. Basic mechanisms and clinical implications. Drugs Aging 1:116–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schrodinger E (1944) What is life? Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  104. Schultz CJ, Torres E, Londos C, Torday JS (2002) Role of adipocyte differentiation-related protein in surfactant phospholipid synthesis by type II cells. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 283:L288–L296CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Shapiro JA (2011) Evolution: a view from the 21st century. FT Press, Upper Saddle RiverGoogle Scholar
  106. Shapiro JA (2017a) Biological action in read–write genome evolution. Interface Focus 7:20160115PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. Shapiro JA (2017b) Exploring the read-write genome: mobile DNA and mammalian adaptation. Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol 52:1–17CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. Shapiro JA (2017c) Living organisms author their read-write genomes in evolution. Biology 6(4):E42CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  109. Sharma A (2017) Transgenerational epigenetics: integrating soma to germline communication with gametic inheritance. Mech Ageing Dev 163:15–22CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  110. Shubin N, Tabin C, Carroll S (2009) Deep homology and the origins of evolutionary novelty. Nature 457:818–823CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  111. Smith A (1790) The theory of moral sentiments. A. Millar, LondonGoogle Scholar
  112. Smith H (1959) From fish to philosopher. Little Brown, BostonGoogle Scholar
  113. Smocovitis VB (1996) Unifying biology. Princeton University Press, PrincetonGoogle Scholar
  114. Soshnikova N (2014) Hox genes regulation in vertebrates. Dev Dyn 243:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Spemann H, Mangold H (2001) Induction of embryonic primordia by implantation of organizers from a different species. Int J Dev Biol 45:13–38PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Steves CJ, Spector TD, Jackson SH (2012) Ageing, genes, environment and epigenetics: what twin studies tell us now, and in the future. Age Ageing 41:581–586CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Storr SJ, Woolston CM, Zhang Y, Martin SG (2013) Redox environment, free radical, and oxidative DNA damage. Antioxid Redox Signal 18:2399–2408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Theobald DL (2012) A formal test of the theory of universal common ancestry. Nature 465:219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Thisse B, Thisse C (2015) Formation of the vertebrate embryo: moving beyond the Spemann organizer. Semin Cell Dev Biol 42:94–102CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  120. Todaro GJ, Fryling C, De Larco JE (1980) Transforming growth factors produced by certain human tumor cells: polypeptides that interact with epidermal growth factor receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 77:5258–5262CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  121. Tontonoz P, Hu E, Spiegelman BM (1995) Regulation of adipocyte gene expression and differentiation by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma. Curr Opin Genet Dev 5:571–576CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  122. Torday JS (2013) Evolutionary biology redux. Perspect Biol Med 56:455–484Google Scholar
  123. Torday JS (2015a) The cell as the mechanistic basis for evolution. WIREs Syst Biol Med 7:275–284Google Scholar
  124. Torday JS (2015b) A central theory of biology. Med Hypotheses 85:49–57PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  125. Torday JS (2016a) Heterochrony as diachronically modified cell-cell interactions. Biology (Basel) 5(1):4Google Scholar
  126. Torday JS (2016b) The cell as the first niche construction. Biology (Basel) 5(2):19Google Scholar
  127. Torday JS (2016c) Life is simple-biologic complexity is an epiphenomenon. Biology (Basel) 5(2):17Google Scholar
  128. Torday JS (2018a) Quantum mechanics predicts evolutionary biology. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 135:11–15Google Scholar
  129. Torday JS (2018b) From cholesterol to consciousness. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 132:52–56Google Scholar
  130. Torday JS (2019) The singularity of nature. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 142:23–31Google Scholar
  131. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2016a) The unicellular state as a point source in a quantum biological system. Biology (Basel) 5(2):25Google Scholar
  132. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2016b) Biologic relativity: who is the observer and what is observed? Prog Biophys Mol Biol 121:29–34CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  133. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2016c) Life is determined by its environment. Int J Astrobiol 15:345–350CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  134. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2016d) Phenotype as agent for epigenetic inheritance. Biology (Basel) 5(3):30Google Scholar
  135. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2016e) On the evolution of the mammalian brain. Front Syst Neurosci 10:1–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2017) The resolution of ambiguity as the basis for life: a cellular bridge between Western reductionism and Eastern holism. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 131:288–297PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  137. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2018a) The cosmologic continuum from physics to consciousness. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 140:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2018b) A systems approach to physiologic evolution: from micelles to consciousness. J Cell Physiol 233:162–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Torday JS, Miller WB Jr (2018c) Terminal addition in a cellular world. Prog Biophys Mol Biol 135:1–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2002) Stretch-stimulated surfactant synthesis is coordinated by the paracrine actions of PTHrP and leptin. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 283:L130–L135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2003) Mechanotransduction determines the structure and function of lung and bone: a theoretical model for the pathophysiology of chronic disease. Cell Biochem Biophys 37:235–246PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  142. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2004) Deconvoluting lung evolution using functional/comparative genomics. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 31:8–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2006) Up-regulation of fetal rat lung parathyroid hormone-related protein gene regulatory network down-regulates the Sonic Hedgehog/Wnt/betacatenin gene regulatory network. Pediatr Res 60:382–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2007) The evolutionary continuum from lung development to homeostasis and repair. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 292:L608–L611Google Scholar
  145. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2009) Lung evolution as a cipher for physiology. Physiol Genomics 38:1–6PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  146. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2011) A cell-molecular approach predicts vertebrate evolution. Mol Biol Evol 28:2973–2981CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  147. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2012) Evolutionary biology, cell-cell communication and complex disease. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  148. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2016) On the evolution of the pulmonary alveolar lipofibroblast. Exp Cell Res 340:215–219Google Scholar
  149. Torday JS, Rehan VK (2017) Evolution, the logic of biology. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  150. Torday JS, Sun H, Qin J (1998) Prostaglandin E2 integrates the effects of fluid distension and glucocorticoid on lung maturation. Am J Phys 274:L106–LL11Google Scholar
  151. Torday JS, Sun H, Wang L, Torres E, Sunday ME, Rubin LP (2002) Leptin mediates the parathyroid hormone-related protein paracrine stimulation of fetal lung maturation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 282:L405–L410CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  152. Torday JS, Torday DP, Gutnick J, Qin J, Rehan V (2001) Biologic role of fetal lung fibroblast triglycerides as antioxidants. Pediatr Res 49:843–849Google Scholar
  153. Urs R, Kotecha S, Hall GL, Simpson SJ (2018) Persistent and progressive long-term lung disease in survivors of preterm birth. Paediatr Respir Rev 28:87–94PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. Warburton D, El-Hashash A, Carraro G, Tiozzo C, Sala F, Rogers O, De Langhe S, Kemp PJ, Riccardi D, Torday J, Bellusci S, Shi W, Lubkin SR, Jesudason E (2010) Lung organogenesis. Curr Top Dev Biol 90:73–158PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  155. Wei YH, Lu CY, Wei CY, Ma YS, Lee HC (2001) Oxidative stress in human aging and mitochondrial disease-consequences of defective mitochondrial respiration and impaired antioxidant enzyme system. Chin J Physiol 44:1–11PubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. Whitsett JA, Weaver TE (2015) Alveolar development and disease. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol 53:1–7CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  157. Williams GC (1957) Pleiotropy, natural selection, and the evolution of senescence. Evolution 11:398–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Zhang W, Du G, Zhou J, Chen J (2018a) Regulation of sensing, transportation, and catabolism of nitrogen sources in saccharomyces cerevisiae. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 82:e00040PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  159. Zheng W, Wang Z, Collins JE, Andrews RM, Stemple D, Gong Z (2011) Comparative transcriptome analyses indicate molecular homology of zebrafish swimbladder and mammalian lung. PLoS One 6(8):e24019CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  160. Zhang Y, Chen G, Gu Z, Sun H, Karaplis A, Goltzman D, Miao D (2018b) DNA damage checkpoint pathway modulates the regulation of skeletal growth and osteoblastic bone formation by parathyroid hormone-related peptide. Int J Biol Sci 14:508–517PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Torday
    • 1
  • William Miller Jr.
    • 2
  1. 1.Deptartment of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and GynecologyHarbor–UCLA Medical CenterTorranceUSA
  2. 2.Physician/Independent researcherBanner Health/J.C.Lincoln Health SystemsParadise ValleyUSA

Personalised recommendations