Introduction of Rare Earth Metal Recovery for Green and Clean Energy Technologies

  • Ana Belen Cueva Sola
  • Pankaj Kumar Parhi
  • Thriveni Thenepalli
  • Rajesh Kumar JyothiEmail author


Rare earths (REs) play an important and key role in human lives in the twenty-first century; REs have numerous applications in the high-tech industry (electrical or electronic fields). Hydrometallurgy, the aqueous processing of metal ion tool, is the cheapest and most convenient for RE recovery from primary resources (ores and minerals) and secondary resources (industrial wastes and scraps). South Korea has many high-tech industries in the fields of electrical and electronic item manufacturing, as well as supply to global needs. At the same time, this country has two major problems; one is the landfilling problem (generated manufacturing waste and after usage scraps), and the other is natural resources. And another major concern is the population densities. Sustainability leads the society in developing stages. It mainly is subject to society, environment, and economy. East Asian countries such as Korea have very limited natural resources of rare earths (REs); at the same time, Korea manufactures and supplies the electrical and electronic goods for global needs. The recycling subject concern is waste minimization, as well as environmental protection and economic incentives, energy considerations, and industrial ecology.


Rare earths Recovery Recycling Green technology applications 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Belen Cueva Sola
    • 1
  • Pankaj Kumar Parhi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Thriveni Thenepalli
    • 3
  • Rajesh Kumar Jyothi
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Convergence Research Center for Development of Mineral ResourcesKorea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources (KIGAM)DaejeonSouth Korea
  2. 2.School of Chemical Technology and School of BiotechnologyKalinga Institute of Industrial Technology (KIIT) Deemed to be UniversityBhubaneswarIndia
  3. 3.Mineral Resources Division, Center for Carbon MineralizationKorea Institute of Geosciences and Mineral Resources (KIGAM)DaejeonSouth Korea

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