Wheel/Rail Creep Force Model for Wayside Application of Top-of-Rail Products Incorporating Carry-On and Consumption Effects

  • Zing S. Lee
  • Gerald Trummer
  • Klaus Six
  • Roger LewisEmail author
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


With the current lack of a wheel/rail creep force model that simulates the performance of a top-of-rail (TOR) product as a third body layer, this study aims to develop a model for a friction modifier. Pick-up, carry-on and consumption behaviours of the TOR-friction modifier product were thoroughly studied using a full-scale rig (FSR) and a twin disc machine. Results show that the amount of application affects the pick-up, carry-on and consumption behaviours in a FSR setting. In the twin disc setting, the normal pressure affects the consumption behaviour. The experimental data provided the basis for development of a model that allows predictions of the friction behaviour for wayside application of top-of-rail products as a function of distance to the application site and the number of wheel passes.


Creep force model Friction modifier Pick-up Carry-on Consumption 



This project was funded by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA). This project was funded by the Federal Railroad Administration (FRA), and partially supported by the COMET K2 – Competence Centers for Excellent Technologies Programme of the Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology (bmvit), the Federal Ministry for Digital, Business and Enterprise (bmdw), the Austrian Research Promotion Agency (FFG), the Province of Styria and the Styrian Business Promotion Agency (SFG).


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zing S. Lee
    • 1
  • Gerald Trummer
    • 2
  • Klaus Six
    • 2
  • Roger Lewis
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of SheffieldSheffieldUK
  2. 2.Virtual Vehicle Research CenterGrazAustria

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