Integrated Chassis Control for Improved Braking Performance on Rough Roads

Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)


The deterioration of ABS braking performance on rough roads is well established in the literature. Large variations in tyre normal force during braking is one of the main contributors to this deterioration. Reducing the tyre normal force variation by controlling the suspension characteristics may thus improve the braking performance on rough roads. This paper proposes a novel algorithm that can be used to reduce tyre normal force variation through semi-active suspension control. The algorithm consists of three stages, firstly estimating the road input, secondly predicting the suspension force, and thirdly identifying suspension settings that may reduce suspension force variation and hence tyre normal force variation. The effect of the algorithm is investigated by using an experimentally validated vehicle simulation model on experimentally measured road profiles. Simulation results show that the stopping distance from 80 km/h on a Belgian paving can be reduced on average by 1.3 m.


Integrated chassis control Braking on rough roads Vehicle simulation 




\( A_{i} \)

ith value in sample A

\( \bar{A} \)

Mean of sample A

\( \bar{F}_{front} \)

Mean suspension force on front axle

\( \bar{F}_{rear} \)

Mean suspension force on rear axle

\( f_{{4S_{{4_{front} }} }} \)

Function describing 4S4 front suspension force

\( f_{{4S_{4rear} }} \)

Function describing 4S4 rear suspension force

\( N \)

Sample size

\( \dot{z}_{f} \)

Front suspension relative velocity

\( z_{r} \)

Rear suspension relative displacement

\( \dot{z}_{r} \)

Rear suspension relative velocity

\( z_{1} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical translation

\( z_{1\_KF} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical translation estimated by KF

\( \dot{z}_{1} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical velocity

\( \dot{z}_{1\_KF} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical velocity estimated by KF

\( \ddot{z}_{1} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical acceleration

\( z_{2} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical translation

\( z_{f} \)

Front suspension relative displacement

\( h_{PC} \)

Distance from pitch centre to centre of gravity

\( I_{y} \)

Moment of inertia about y-y axis


Kalman Filter

\( l_{f} \)

Distance from vehicle CG to front wheels

\( l_{r} \)

Distance from vehicle CG to rear wheels

\( m_{s} \)

Sprung mass

\( z_{2\_KF} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical translation estimated by KF

\( \dot{z}_{2} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical velocity

\( \dot{z}_{2\_KF} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical velocity estimated by KF

\( \dot{z}_{3} \)

Sprung mass vertical velocity

\( \ddot{z}_{3} \)

Sprung mass vertical acceleration

\( \theta_{\text{y}} \)

Pitch angle

\( \dot{\theta }_{\text{y}} \)

Pitch rate

\( \ddot{\theta }_{\text{y}} \)

Pitch angular acceleration

\( \sigma_{weighted} \)

Weighted suspension strut force standard deviation

\( \varphi \)

Front/rear axle weighting


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical EngineeringUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

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