Advertisement

Integrated Chassis Control for Improved Braking Performance on Rough Roads

  • Herman A. HamersmaEmail author
  • P. Schalk Els
Conference paper
  • 7 Downloads
Part of the Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering book series (LNME)

Abstract

The deterioration of ABS braking performance on rough roads is well established in the literature. Large variations in tyre normal force during braking is one of the main contributors to this deterioration. Reducing the tyre normal force variation by controlling the suspension characteristics may thus improve the braking performance on rough roads. This paper proposes a novel algorithm that can be used to reduce tyre normal force variation through semi-active suspension control. The algorithm consists of three stages, firstly estimating the road input, secondly predicting the suspension force, and thirdly identifying suspension settings that may reduce suspension force variation and hence tyre normal force variation. The effect of the algorithm is investigated by using an experimentally validated vehicle simulation model on experimentally measured road profiles. Simulation results show that the stopping distance from 80 km/h on a Belgian paving can be reduced on average by 1.3 m.

Keywords

Integrated chassis control Braking on rough roads Vehicle simulation 

Nomenclature

Symbol

Description

\( A_{i} \)

ith value in sample A

\( \bar{A} \)

Mean of sample A

\( \bar{F}_{front} \)

Mean suspension force on front axle

\( \bar{F}_{rear} \)

Mean suspension force on rear axle

\( f_{{4S_{{4_{front} }} }} \)

Function describing 4S4 front suspension force

\( f_{{4S_{4rear} }} \)

Function describing 4S4 rear suspension force

\( N \)

Sample size

\( \dot{z}_{f} \)

Front suspension relative velocity

\( z_{r} \)

Rear suspension relative displacement

\( \dot{z}_{r} \)

Rear suspension relative velocity

\( z_{1} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical translation

\( z_{1\_KF} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical translation estimated by KF

\( \dot{z}_{1} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical velocity

\( \dot{z}_{1\_KF} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical velocity estimated by KF

\( \ddot{z}_{1} \)

Front unsprung mass vertical acceleration

\( z_{2} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical translation

\( z_{f} \)

Front suspension relative displacement

\( h_{PC} \)

Distance from pitch centre to centre of gravity

\( I_{y} \)

Moment of inertia about y-y axis

KF

Kalman Filter

\( l_{f} \)

Distance from vehicle CG to front wheels

\( l_{r} \)

Distance from vehicle CG to rear wheels

\( m_{s} \)

Sprung mass

\( z_{2\_KF} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical translation estimated by KF

\( \dot{z}_{2} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical velocity

\( \dot{z}_{2\_KF} \)

Rear unsprung mass vertical velocity estimated by KF

\( \dot{z}_{3} \)

Sprung mass vertical velocity

\( \ddot{z}_{3} \)

Sprung mass vertical acceleration

\( \theta_{\text{y}} \)

Pitch angle

\( \dot{\theta }_{\text{y}} \)

Pitch rate

\( \ddot{\theta }_{\text{y}} \)

Pitch angular acceleration

\( \sigma_{weighted} \)

Weighted suspension strut force standard deviation

\( \varphi \)

Front/rear axle weighting

References

  1. 1.
    Antilock Brake System Review (2014)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Savitski, D., Ivanov, V., Shyrokau, B., Putz, T., De Smet, J., Theunissen, J.: Experimental investigations on continuous regenerative anti-lock braking system of full electric vehicle. Int. J. Automot. Technol. Manage. 17(2), 327–338 (2016). (in English)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Savitski, D., et al.: The new paradigm of an anti-lock braking system for a full electric vehicle: experimental investigation and benchmarking. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. Part D: J. Automob. Eng. 230, 1364–1377 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Ivanov, V., Savitski, D., Augsburg, K., Barber, P.: Electric vehicles with individually controlled on-board motors: revisiting the ABS design. In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Mechatronics (ICM), pp. 323–328 (2015)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ivanov, V., Savitski, D., Shyrokau, B.: A survey of traction control and antilock braking systems of full electric vehicles with individually controlled electric motors. IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol. 64(9), 3878–3896 (2015). (in English)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Breuer, B., Bill, K.H.: Brake Technology Handbook (2008)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Penny, W.C.W., Els, P.S.: The test and simulation of ABS on rough, non-deformable terrains. J. Terramech. 67, 1–10 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Els, P.S., Theron, N.J., Uys, P.E., Thoresson, M.J.: The ride comfort vs. handling compromise for off-road vehicles. J. Terramech. 44(4), 303–317 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Thoresson, M.J.: Mathematical optimisation of the suspension system of an off-road vehicle for ride comfort handling, MEng (Mechanical), Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical Engineering, University of Pretoria (2003)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gillespie, T.D.: Fundamentals of Vehicle Dynamics. SAE International, Warrendale (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Niemz, T., Winner, H.: Reduction of braking distance by control of active dampers. In: Presented at the FISITA World Automotive Congress, Yokohama, Japan (2006)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hamersma, H.A., Els, P.S.: Improving the braking performance of a vehicle with ABS and a semi-active suspension system on a rough road. J. Terramech. 56, 91–101 (2014). (in English)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Hamersma, H.A., Botha, T.R., Els, P.S.: Wheel hop estimation on rough roads. In: Presented at the Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks: Proceedings of the 25th International Symposium on Dynamics of Vehicles on Roads and Tracks (IAVSD 2017), 14–18 August 2017, Rockhampton, Australia (2017)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Becker, C.M., Els, P.S.: Profiling of rough terrain. Int. J. Veh. Des. 64(2–4), 240–261 (2014). (in English)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical and Aeronautical EngineeringUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations