Research Outcome Measures

  • Fiona MellorEmail author
  • Karen Knapp


An outcome is a consequence or result thus an outcome measure in research is a standardised way of measuring the consequences or results of research. Outcome measures are widely used in clinical practice, service evaluation, and research, however their selection and use may be complicated by the dearth of information available. The selection of outcome measures should be undertaken at a research design stage and should fit with the methodology, aims, and objectives of the research. There are many factors influencing the choice of outcome measure to report results and is important to know whether the chosen outcome measure is valid and reliable, researchers are therefore cautioned against developing their own. This chapter is designed to aid a researcher in understanding classifications and considerations when selecting outcome measures. Advice is presented along with information on how to report outcome measures in the write up of research. Outcome measures used in radiography research are also presented in this chapter.


Radiography outcome measures Radiotherapy outcome measures Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) Reporting results Decision making Outcomes assessment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AECC University CollegeBournemouthUK
  2. 2.South CloistersUniversity of ExeterExeterUK

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