Advertisement

Insecta Class: Caterpillars, Butterflies, Moths

  • Vignesh Ramachandran
  • Theodore RosenEmail author
Chapter
  • 29 Downloads

Abstract

Lepidoptera, the second largest class of Insecta with over 180,000 species, is comprised of moths and butterflies, and their respective caterpillars. Lepidopteran reactions are the result of contact with moths, butterflies and caterpillars. Although largely harmless, they manifest as a range of dermatologic conditions and systemic symptoms. This chapter presents some of the common causative organisms in the United States and worldwide. Caterpillars (the larval form) are mostly implicated, although contact with some moths and butterflies may also cause dermatologic sequelae. Typically, treatment is avoidance, removal of hairs/setae and topical/oral corticosteroids and/or antihistamines. Overall, although many reactions are non-specific, the framework provided herein aids in compartmentalizing species and associated symptom complexes.

Keywords

Bite Caterpillar Dendrolimiasis Dermatitis Lepidoptera Lepidopterism Moth Ophthalmia nodosa Sting Urticaria 

References

  1. 1.
    Garty BZ, Danon YL. Processionary caterpillar dermatitis. Pediatr Dermatol. 1985;2(3):194–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Perlman F, Press E, Googins JA, Malley A, Poarea H. Tussockosis: reactions to Douglas fir tussock moth. Ann Allergy. 1976;36(5):302–7.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Alexander S. The browntail moth, its caterpillar and their rash. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1980;5(2):261.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Smith WD. Contact urticaria due to the brown-tail moth. Practitioner. 1966;196(175):690–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Jong MC, Bleumink E, Nater JP. Investigative studies of the dermatitis caused by the larva of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linn.) I. Clinical and experimental findings. Arch dermatological Res. 1975;253(3):287–300.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hossler EW. Caterpillars and moths. Part I. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(2):1–10.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hossler EW. Caterpillars and moths. Part II. Dermatologic manifestations of encounters with Lepidoptera. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2010;62(1):13–28.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Müller CSL, Tilgen W, Pföhler C. Caterpillar dermatitis revisited: lepidopterism after contact with oak processionary caterpillar. BMJ Case Rep. 2011;2011.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Paniz-Mondolfi AE, Pérez-Alvarez AM, Lundberg U, Fornés L, Reyes-Jaimes O, Hernández-Pérez M, et al. Cutaneous lepidopterism: dermatitis from contact with moths of Hylesia metabus (Cramer 1775) (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae), the causative agent of caripito itch. Int J Dermatol. 2011;50(5):535–41.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Rosen T. Caterpillar dermatitis. Dermatol Clin. 1990;8(2):245–52.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    McGovern JP, Barkin GD, McElhenney TR, Wende R. Megalopyge opercularis. JAMA. 1961;175(13):1155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Eagleman DM. Envenomation by the asp caterpillar (Megalopyge opercularis). Clin Toxicol. 2008;46(3):201–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Stipetic ME, Rosen PB, Borys DJ. A retrospective analysis of 96 “asp” (Megalopyge opercularis) envenomations in Central Texas during 1996. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol. 1999;37(4):457–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bishopp F. The puss caterpillar and the effects of its sting on man. United States Dep Agric Dep Circ. 1923;288:1–4.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Neustater BR, Stollman NH, Manten HD. Sting of the puss caterpillar: an unusual cause of acute abdominal pain. South Med J. 1996;89(8):826–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Ardao MI, Sosa Perdomo C, Pellaton MG. Venom of the Megalopyge urens (Berg) caterpillar. Nature. 1966;209(5028):1139–40.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Henwood BP, MacDonald DM. Caterpillar dermatitis. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1983;8(1):77–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Scott H. Stinging caterpillars. Pest Control. 1964;32:24–5.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Auerbach PS, Cushing TA, Harris NS. Auerbach’s wilderness medicine. 7th ed. Philadephia: Elsevier; 2016.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pinson RT, Morgan JA. Envenomation by the puss caterpillar (Megalopyge opercularis). Ann Emerg Med. 1991;20(5):562–4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Holland DL, Adams DP. “Puss caterpillar” envenomation: a report from North Carolina. Wilderness Environ Med. 1998;9(4):213–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Micks DW. Clinical effects of the sting of the “puss caterpillar” (Megalopyge opercularis S & A) on man. Tex Rep Biol Med. 1952;10(2):399–405.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hossler EW, Elston DM, Wagner DL. What’s eating you? Io moth (Automeris io). Cutis. 2008;82(1):21–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tuskes PM, Tuttle JP, Collins M. The wild silk moths of North America. Ithaca: Cornell University Press; 1996.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Manley T. Diapause, voltinism, and foodplants of Automeris io (Saturniidae) in the southeastern United States. J Lepid Soc. 1993;47(4):303–21.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Battisti A, Holm G, Fagrell B, Larsson S. Urticating hairs in arthropods: their nature and medical significance. Annu Rev Entomol. 2011;56(1):203–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Everson GW, Chapin JB, Normann SA. Caterpillar envenomations: a prospective study of 112 cases. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1990;32(2):114–9.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stratton-Porter G. Moths of the Limberlost. Loschberg: Jazzybee Verlag; 1921.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Diaz JH. The evolving global epidemiology, syndromic classification, management, and prevention of caterpillar envenoming. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72(3):347–57.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hossler EW. Caterpillars and moths. Dermatol Ther. 2009;22(4):353–66.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Hughes G, Rosen T. Automeris io (caterpillar) dermatitis. Cutis. 1980;26(1):71–3.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Covell CV. A field guide to moths of eastern North America. 2nd ed. Martinswille: Virginia Museum of Natural History; 2005.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Wagner DL. Caterpillars of Eastern North America: a guide to identification and natural history. Princeton: Princeton University Press; 2005.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Baldwin, JL, Hall M et al. Insect pest 2012 management guide. Louisianna State University Agriculture Center. https://www.lsuagcenter.com/~/media/system/4/9/6/c/496c381f03be739dc3d77b0a1a893309/pub1838_2018lainsectpestmgmtguidepdf.pdf. Accessed 14 Dec 2018.
  35. 35.
    Bessin, R.: University of Kentucky Entomology: stinging caterpillars. 2010. https://web.archive.org/web/20110927135147, http://www.ca.uky.edu/entomology/entfacts/ef003.asp. Accessed 12 Dec 2018.
  36. 36.
    Edwards EK Jr, Edwards EK, Kowalczyk AP. Contact urticaria and allergic contact dermatitis to the saddleback caterpillar with histologic correlation. Int J Dermatol. 1986;25(7):467.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Howard FW, Moore D, Giblin-Davis RM, Abad RG. Insects on palms. New York: CABI; 2001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Bibbs, CS, Howard, FJ. Saddleback caterpillar Acharia stimulea (Clemens) (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Limacodidae). 2015. http://entnemdept.ifas.ufl.edu/creatures/. Accessed 13 Dec 2018.
  39. 39.
    Claudet I, Maréchal C. A transatlantic caterpillar. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2009;25(3):186–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Derraik J. Erucism in New Zealand: exposure to gum leaf skeletoniser (Uraba lugens) caterpillars in the differential diagnosis of contact dermatitis in the Auckland region. N Z Med J. 2006;119(1241):U2142.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Derraik JGB. Three students exposed to Uraba lugens (gum leaf skeletoniser) caterpillars in a West Auckland school. N Z Med J. 2007;120(1259):U2656.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Isbister GK, Whelan PI. Envenomation by the billygoat plum stinging caterpillar (Thosea penthima). Med J Aust. 2018;173(11–12):654–5.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nagamine WT, Epstein ME. Chronicles of Darna pallivitta (Moore 1877) (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae): biology and larval morphology of a new pest in Hawaii. Pan-Pac Entomol. 2007;83(2):120–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chun S, Hara A, Niino-DuPonte R, Nagamine W, Conant P, Hirayama C. Identifying and managing stinging nettle caterpillars. 2005. https://hdoa.hawaii.gov/pi/files/2013/01/npa01-03_netcat.pdf. Accessed 12 Dec 2018.
  45. 45.
    Freitas AVL, Brown KS. Phylogeny of the nymphalidae (Lepidoptera). Syst Biol. 2004;53(3):363–83.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Scott JA. The butterflies of North America: a natural history and field guide. 1st ed. Palo Alto: Stanford University Press; 1997.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Etkind PH, Odell TM, Canada AT, Shama SK, Finn AM, Tuthill R. The gypsy moth caterpillar: a significant new occupational and public health problem. J Occup Med. 1982;24(9):659–62.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Rash illness associated with gypsy moth caterpillars–Pennsylvania. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982;31(13):169–70.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Anderson JF, Furniss WE. Epidemic of urticaria associated with first-instar larvae of the gypsy moth (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae). J Med Entomol. 1983;20(2):146–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Wirtz RA. Occupational allergies to arthropods—documentation and prevention. Bull Entomol Soc Am. 1980;26(3):356–62.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Shama SK, Etkind PH, Odell TM, Canada AT, Finn AM, Soter NA. Gypsy-moth-caterpillar dermatitis. N Engl J Med. 1982;306(21):1300–1.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Kikuchi T, Kobayashi K, Sakata K, Akasaka T. Gypsy moth-induced dermatitis: a hospital review and community survey. Eur J Dermatol. 2012;22(3):384–90.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Leger M, Mouzels P. Dermatose prurigineuse determince par des pari lIons saturnides de genre Hylesia. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1918;11:104–7.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dinehart SM, Archer ME, Wolf JE, McGavran MH, Reitz C, Smith EB. Caripito itch: dermatitis from contact with Hylesia moths. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1985;13(5 Pt 1):743–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Wirtz RA. Allergic and toxic reactions to non-stinging arthropods. Annu Rev Entomol. 1984;29(1):47–69.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jourdain F, Girod R, Vassal JM, Chandre F, Lagneau C, Fouque F, et al. The moth Hylesia metabus and French Guiana lepidopterism: centenary of a public health concern. Parasite. 2012;19(2):117–28.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Hill WR, Rubenstein AD, Kovacs J. Dermatitis resulting from contact with moths (genus Hylesia). JAMA. 1948;138(10):737–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Goldman L, Sawyer F, Levine A, Goldman J, Goldman S, Spinager J. Investigative studies of skin irritations from caterpillars. J Invest Dermatol. 1960;34:67–79.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Gilmer PM. A comparative study of the poison apparatus of certain lepidopterous larvae. Ann Entomol Soc Am. 1925;18(2):203–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Coleman TW, Jones MI, Courtial B, Graves AD, Woods M, Roques A, et al. Impact of the first recorded outbreak of the Douglas-fir tussock moth, Orgyia pseudotsugata, in southern California and the extent of its distribution in the Pacific Southwest region. For Ecol Manage. 2014;329:295–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Natural Resources Canada: Douglas-fir tussock moth. 2015. https://tidcf.nrcan.gc.ca/en/insects/factsheet/1000009. Accessed 14 Dec 2018.
  62. 62.
    Redd JT, Voorhees RE, Török TJ. Outbreak of lepidopterism at a boy scout camp. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56(6):952–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Hoover AH, Nelson E. Skin symptoms attributed to tussock moth infestation. Cutis. 1974;13:597.Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Press E, Googins JA, Poareo H, Jones K. Health hazards to timber and forestry workers from the Douglas fir tussock moth. Arch Environ Health. 1977;32(5):206–10.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Kuspis DA, Rawlins JE, Krenzelok EP. Human exposures to stinging caterpillar: Lophocampa caryae exposures. Am J Emerg Med. 2001;19(5):396–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tripi PA, Lee R, Keiper JB, Jones AW, Arnold JE. An unusual case of ingestion of a moth cocoon in a 14-month-old girl. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010;31(2):123–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    DuGar B, Sterbank J, Tcheurekdjian H, Hostoffer R. Beware of the caterpillar: anaphylaxis to the spotted tussock moth caterpillar. Lophocampa maculata. Allergy Rhinol (Providence). 2014;5(2):113–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Potter A. Brown-tail moth dermatitis. JAMA. 1909;LIII(18):1463–4.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Elkinton JS, Parry D, Boettner GH. Implicating an introduced generalist parasitoid in the invasive browntail moth’s enigmatic demise. Ecology. 2006;87(10):2664–72.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Frago E, Guara M, Pujade-Villar J, Selfa J. Winter feeding leads to a shifted phenology in the browntail moth Euproctis chrysorrhoea on the evergreen strawberry tree Arbutus unedo. Agric For Entomol. 2010;12(4):381–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Blair CP. The browntail moth, its caterpillar and their rash. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1979;4(2):215–22.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Burgess AF. Imported insect enemies of the gypsy moth and the brown-tail moth. In: United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin. 1929. https://naldc.nal.usda.gov/download/CAT86200081/PDF. Accessed 17 Dec 2018.
  73. 73.
    Hall-Smith PJ, Graham P. Beware the furry caterpillar. Clin Exp Dermatol. 1980;5(2):261–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Kephart CF. The poison glands of the larva of the brown-tail moth (Euproctis chrysorrhoea Linn.). J Parasitol. 1914;1(2):95.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    de Jong MC, Kawamoto F, Bleumink E, Kloosterhuis AJ, Meijer GT. A comparative study of the spicule venom of Euproctis caterpillars. Toxicon. 1982;20(2):477–85.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Bleumink E, de Jong MC, Kawamoto F, Meyer GT, Kloosterhuis AJ, Slijper-Pal IJ. Protease activities in the spicule venom of Euproctis caterpillars. Toxicon. 1982;20(3):607–13.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kawamoto F, Kumada N. Kininogenase activity and kinin-like substance in the venomous spicules and spines of lepidopteran larvae. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1979;120A:51–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    United States Department of Agriculture. Tiger Moth: tree-top tents appear early in conifers. 2011. https://www.fs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb5320266.pdf. Accessed 17 Dec 2018.
  79. 79.
    The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Tiger moth [Internet]. Encyclopedia Britannica. 2018 [cited 2018 Dec 15]. p. 1. https://www.britannica.com/animal/tiger-moth.
  80. 80.
    Wills PJ, Anjana M, Nitin M, Varun R, Sachidanandan P, Jacob TM, et al. Population explosions of tiger moth lead to Lepidopterism mimicking infectious fever outbreaks. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152787.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rothschild M, Reichstein T, von Euw J, Aplin R, Harman RRM. Toxic lepidoptera. Toxicon. 1970;8(4):293–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Bruchim Y, Ranen E, Saragusty J, Aroch I. Severe tongue necrosis associated with pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni) ingestion in three dogs. Toxicon. 2005;45(4):443–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Bonamonte D, Foti C, Vestita M, Angelini G. Skin Reactions to pine processionary caterpillar Thaumetopoea pityocampa Schiff. Sci World J. 2013;867431:1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Vega JM, Moneo I, Ortiz JCG, Palla PS, Sanchís ME, Vega J, et al. Prevalence of cutaneous reactions to the pine processionary moth (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in an adult population. Contact Dermatitis. 2011;64(4):220–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Vega ML, Vega J, Vega JM, Moneo I, Sánchez E, Miranda A. Cutaneous reactions to pine processionary caterpillar (Thaumetopoea pityocampa) in pediatric population. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2003;14(6):482–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Vega JM, Moneo I, Armentia A, López-Rico R, Curiel G, Bartolomé B, et al. Anaphylaxis to a pine caterpillar. Allergy. 1997;52(12):1244–5.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Bessler E, Biedner B, Yassur Y. Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni (toxic pine caterpillars) blepharoconjunctivitis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987;103(1):117–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Veiga AB, Blochtein B, Guimarães JA. Structures involved in production, secretion and injection of the venom produced by the caterpillar Lonomia obliqua (Lepidoptera, Saturniidae). Toxicon. 2001;39(9):1343–51.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Kowacs PA, Cardoso J, Entres M, Novak EM, Werneck LC. Fatal intracerebral hemorrhage secondary to Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenoming. Arq Neuropsiquiatr. 2006;64(4):1030–2.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Arocha-Piñango CL, Guerrero B. [Hemorrhagic syndrome induced by caterpillars. Clinical and experimental studies]. Invest Clin. 2003;44(2):155–63.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Zannin M, Lourenço DM, Motta G, Dalla Costa LR, Grando M, Gamborgi GP, et al. Blood coagulation and fibrinolytic factors in 105 patients with hemorrhagic syndrome caused by accidental contact with Lonomia obliqua caterpillar in Santa Catarina, southern Brazil. Thromb Haemost. 2003;89(2):355–64.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Chan K, Lee A, Onell R, Etches W, Nahirniak S, Bagshaw SM, et al. Caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome in a returning traveller. Can Med Assoc J. 2008;179(2):158–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Chudzinski-Tavassi AM, Carrijo-Carvalho LC. Biochemical and biological properties of Lonomia obliqua bristle extract. J Venom Anim Toxins Incl Trop Dis. 2006;12(2):159–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Arocha-Piñango CL, de Bosch NB, Torres A, Goldstein C, Nouel A, Argüello A, et al. Six new cases of a caterpillar-induced bleeding syndrome. Thromb Haemost. 1992;67(4):402–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Portela Gamborgi G, Brett Metcalf E, J.G. Barros E. Acute renal failure provoked by toxin from caterpillars of the species Lonomia obliqua. Toxicon. 2006;47(1):68–74.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Da Silva WD, Campos CM, Gonçalves LR, Sousa-e-Silva MC, Higashi HG, Yamagushi IK, et al. Development of an antivenom against toxins of Lonomia obliqua caterpillars. Toxicon. 1996;34(9):1045–9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Huang DZ. Dendrolimiasis: an analysis of 58 cases. J Trop Med Hyg. 1991;94(2):79–87.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Billings RF. The pine caterpillar Dendrolimus punctatus in Vietnam; Recommendations for integrated pest management. For Ecol Manage. 1991;39:97–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yang C-H, Yang P-C, Li J, Yang F, Zhang A-B. Transcriptome characterization of dendrolimus punctatus and expression profiles at different developmental stages. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(8):e0161667.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lawson JP, Liu YM. Pinemoth caterpillar disease. Skeletal Radiol. 1986;15(6):422–7.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Villas-Boas IM, Gonçalves-de-Andrade RM, Pidde-Queiroz G, Assaf SLMR, Portaro FC V., Sant’Anna OA, et al. Premolis semirufa (Walker, 1856) Envenomation, disease affecting rubber tappers of the Amazon: searching for caterpillar-bristles toxic components. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6(2):e1531.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Costa RM, Atra E, Ferraz MB, da Silva NP, de Souza JM, Batista Júnior J, et al. “Pararamose”: an occupational arthritis caused by lepidoptera (Premolis semirufa). An epidemiological study. Rev Paul Med. 1993;111(6):462–5.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Zaspel JM, Kononenko VS, Goldstein PZ. Another blood feeder? Experimental feeding of a fruit-piercing moth species on human blood in the primorye territory of far Eastern Russia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae: Calpinae). J Insect Behav. 2007;20(5):437–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Bänziger H. Skin-piercing blood-sucking moths II: Studies on a further 3 adult Calyptra [Calpe] sp. (Lepid., Noctuidae). Acta Trop. 1979;36(1):23–37.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Watson PG, Sevel D. Ophthalmia nodosa. Br J Ophthalmol. 1966;50(4):209–17.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Cadera W, Pachtman MA, Fountain JA, Ellis FD, Wilson FM. Ocular lesions caused by caterpillar hairs (ophthalmia nodosa). Can J Ophthalmol. 1984;19(1):40–4.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Steele C, Lucas DR, Ridgway AE. Endophthalmitis due to caterpillar setae: surgical removal and electron microscopic appearances of the setae. Br J Ophthalmol. 1984;68(4):284–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Fraser SG, Dowd TC, Bosanquet RC. Intraocular caterpillar hairs (setae): Clinical course and management. Eye. 1994;8(5):596–8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and not under copyright protection in the U.S.; foreign copyright protection may apply 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Dermatology, Baylor College of MedicineHoustonUSA

Personalised recommendations