Morphology and Diagnostic Techniques

  • Hannah R. BadonEmail author
  • Andrew S. Desrosiers
  • Robert T. Brodell
  • Stephen E. Helms


In the United States, it is estimated that 1 of every 3 people is affected by a skin condition at any point in time (Johnson in J Invest Dermatol 9:108–110, 2004, [1]). The skin is the body’s barrier to the outside world and, therefore, may be impacted by UV radiation, irritants, allergens, viruses, bacteria, and arthropods. A damaged barrier can result in rash formation, pruritus, burning sensation, impetigo, cellulitis, and even septicemia or death. Cutaneous signs and symptoms can provide clues as to the possibility of a specific diagnosis related to a wide variety of outdoor hazards so that they can be properly treated or avoided. It is certainly important to separate these conditions from those related to systemic disease.


Lexicon Skin barrier Macules Papules Vesicles Pustules Bullae Nodules Tumors excoriation Location Distribution 



None of the authors have relevant conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hannah R. Badon
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrew S. Desrosiers
    • 1
  • Robert T. Brodell
    • 2
    • 3
  • Stephen E. Helms
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Mississippi School of MedicineJacksonUSA
  2. 2.Department of DermatologyUniversity of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  3. 3.Professor of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA
  4. 4.Professor of Dermatology, University of Mississippi Medical CenterJacksonUSA

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