Advertisement

Urban Agriculture—More Than Food Production

  • Martina ArtmannEmail author
  • Jürgen Breuste
Chapter
  • 114 Downloads
Part of the Cities and Nature book series (CITIES)

Abstract

Urban agriculture describes the growing of plants and animals in and around cities and it involves activities such as production, processing, delivery, and marketing of agricultural products. Urban fabrics can be composed of manifold urban and peri-urban agriculture depending on spatiality (e.g., rooftop gardens and indoor farming), the actors involved (e.g., family farms and community-supported agriculture), and the organizational perspective (e.g., market orientation including urban farming or subsistence activities such as urban gardening). This chapter aims to contribute to an increased understanding about the impacts and framework conditions for the implementation of urban agriculture taking into account various types of urban food production such as allotment gardens (Breuste and Artmann), community gardens (Liu), community-supported agriculture (La Rosa), home gardens (Dissanayake and Dilini), and the edible city concept (Artmann and Sartison). Thereby, the case studies used cover a wide range of geographical backgrounds from the Global South and North such as Pakistan (Waseem and Breuste), Sri Lanka (Dissanayake and Dilini), China (Liu), Spain (Breuste and Hufnagl), Italy (La Rosa), Austria (Breuste and Artmann), and Germany (Artmann and Sartison). This chapter aims at the development of a comprehensive understanding of urban agriculture and the challenges and changes in food production in cities.

Keywords

Urban agriculture Peri-urban agriculture Urban gardening Food production Allotment gardens Garden forms 

References

  1. Ahmad I, Ahmad SM, Mahmood S, Afzal M, Yaseen M, Saleem M, Rizwan M (2019) To develop a crop water allocation model for optimal water allocation in the warabandi irrigation system. Arab J Sci Eng 1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13369-019-03818-6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Angel S, Parent J, Civco DL, Blei A, Potere D (2011) The dimensions of global urban expansion: estimates and projections for all countries, 2000–2050. Prog Plann 75(2):53–107.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.progress.2011.04.001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Artmann M (2013) Spatial dimensions of soil sealing management in growing and shrinking cities—a systemic multi-scale analysis in Germany. Erdkunde 67(3):249–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arshad M, Ahmad N, Usman M, Shabbir A (2009) Comparison of water losses between unlined and lined water courses in Indus basin of Pakistan. Pak J Agri Sci 46:280–284Google Scholar
  5. Artmann M, Sartison K (2018) The role of urban agriculture as a nature-based solution: a review for developing a systemic assessment framework. Sustainability 10(6):1–32.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su10061937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Artmann M, Kohler M, Meinel G, Gan J, Ioja J-C (2019) How smart growth and green infrastructure can mutually support each other—a conceptual framework for compact and green cities. Ecol Indic 96:10–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Arvaia (2018) Arvaia. Cittadini coltivatori biologici (Arvaia. Organic farming citizens). www.arvaia.it. Accessed 15 June 2018
  8. Atzensberger A (2005) Kleingärten in Salzburg – Nutzung und soziale Aspekte (Allotment gardens in Salzburg—Use and social aspects). Diploma thesis, Paris Lodron University, Salzburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  9. Aubry C, Kebir L (2013) Shortening food supply chains: a means for maintaining agriculture close to urban areas? the case of the French metropolitan area of Paris. Food Policy 41:85–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Aubry C, Ramamonjiso J, Dabat MH, Rakotoariso J, Rakotondraib J, Rabehariso L (2012) Urban agriculture and land use in cities: an approach with the multi-functionality and sustainability concepts in the case of Antananarivo (Madagascar). Land Use Policy 29:429–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Barcelona City Council (Ajuntament de Barcelona) (2011) Pla del verd i de la biodiversitat de Barcelona 2020 (Barcelona green infrastructure and biodiversity plan 2020). https://ajuntament.barcelona.cat/…/Pla%20del%20verd%20i%20d… Accessed 25 Mar 2019 (in Catalan)
  12. Barcelona City Council (Ajuntament de Barcelona) (2015) Pla Buits (empty-spaces plan). http://www.bcn.cat/habitaturba/plabuits. Accessed 27 May 2015 (in Catalan with English summary)
  13. Bargmann H, Eigler H, Zabel J (1989) Parzellierte Idyllen in der Stadt – eine Untersuchung zur sozialen Struktur, Nutzungspräferenzen und Umweltbewusstsein Darmstädter Kleingärtner (Parcelled idylls in the city—a study on social structure, user preferences and environmental awareness of allotment gardeners in Darmstadt). In: Bargmann H, Eigler H, Zabel J (eds) Darmstädter Kleingartenanlagen. Geoöko-Verlag Bensheim, Entwicklung, Nutzung und Belastung aus soziologischer und geoökologischer Sicht, pp 27–61Google Scholar
  14. Barthel S, Parker J, Ernstson H (2013) Food and green space in cities: a resilience lens on gardens and urban environmental movements. Urban Stud 03(24):1–14.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098012472744CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bastian O, Syrbe RU, Rosenberg M, Rahe D, Grunewald K (2013) The five pillar EPPS framework for quantifying, mapping and managing ecosystem services. Ecosyst Serv 4:15–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoser.2013.04.003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bell S, Fox-Kämpfer R, Keshavarz N, Benson M, Caputo S, Nooria S, Voigt A (eds) (2016) Urban allotment gardens in Europe. Routledge, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. Benis K, Ferrão P (2017) Potential mitigation of the environmental impacts of food systems through urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA)–a life cycle assessment approach. J Clean Prod 140:784–795CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bennett AJ (2000) Environmental consequences of increasing production: some current perspectives. Agric Ecosyst Env 82:89–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Bohn K, Viljoen A (2011) The edible city: envisioning the continuous productive urban landscape (CPUL). Field 4(1):149–161Google Scholar
  20. Bolund P, Hunhammar S (1999) Ecosystem services in urban areas. Ecol Econ 29:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Borgue M (2000) Policy options for urban agriculture. In: Bakker N, Dubelling M, Gundel S, Sabel-Koschella U, De Zeeuw H (eds) Growing cities, growing food: urban agriculture on the policy agenda. Food and Agriculture Development Centre (ZEL), Feldafing, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  22. Bougherara D, Grolleau G, Mzoughi N (2009) Buy local, pollute less: what drives households to join a community supported farm? Ecol Econ 68:1488–1495CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Breuste I, Breuste J (1994a) Ausgewählte Aspekte sozialgeographischer Untersuchungen zur Kleingartennutzung in Halle/Saale (Selected aspects of socio-geographical investigations on the use of allotment gardens in Halle/Saale). Greifswalder Beiträge zur Rekreationsgeographie/ Freizeit- und Tourismusforschung 5:171–177Google Scholar
  24. Breuste I, Breuste J (1994b) Erholungsnutzung von Grünflächen im Stadtgebiet von Halle/Saale (Recreational use of green areas in the city of Halle/Saale). Greifswalder Beiträge zur Rekreationsgeographie/Freizeit- und Tourismusforschung 5:155–177Google Scholar
  25. Breuste I, Breuste J (2000) Naturausstattung, -nutzung und -akzeptanz als Grundlage des Stadtnaturschutzes – empirische Untersuchungen in Halle/Saale (Urban nature of the “third kind”—the allotment garden and its use. The example of Salzburg). Hallesches Jahrbuch für Geowissenschaften, Series A: Geographie und Geoökologie 22:81–94Google Scholar
  26. Breuste I, Breuste J, Diaby K, Frühauf M, Sauerwein M, Zierdt M (1996) Hallesche Kleingärten: Nutzung und Schadstoffbelastung als Funktion der sozioökonomischen Stadtstruktur und physisch-geographischer Besonderheiten (Allotment gardens of Halle: Use and pollution as a function of the socio-economic urban structure and physical-geographical features). Leipzig, Helmholtz Zentrum für Umweltforschung UFZ 8:3–6Google Scholar
  27. Breuste J (2007) Stadtnatur der „dritten Art“ – Der Schrebergarten und seine Nutzung. Das Beispiel Salzburg (Urban nature of the “third kind” - the allotment garden and its use. The example of Salzburg). In: Dettmar J, Werner P (eds) Conturec 2, Perspektiven und Bedeutung von Stadtnatur für die Stadtentwicklung. Darmstadt, pp 163–171Google Scholar
  28. Breuste J (2010) Allotment gardens as part of urban green infrastructure: actual trends and perspectives in Central Europe. In: Müller et al (ed) Urban biodiversity and design. Blackwell Publishing, ChichesterCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Breuste J, Artmann M (2015) Allotment gardens contribute to urban ecosystem service: case study Salzburg, Austria. J Urban Plann Dev 141:A5014005Google Scholar
  30. Breuste J, Qureshi S, Li J (2013a) Scaling down the ecosystem services at local level for urban parks of three megacities. Hercynia 46:1–20Google Scholar
  31. Breuste J, Schnellinger J, Qureshi S, Faggi A (2013b) Investigations on habitat provision and recreation as ecosystem services in urban parks—two case studies in Linz and Buenos Aires. In: Breuste J, Pauleit S, Pain J (eds) Conturec 5. Stadtlandschaft- Vielfältige Natur und ungleiche Entiwcklung, Darmstadt, pp 5–20Google Scholar
  32. Brown G (2008) A theory of urban park geography. J Leisure Res 40:589–607CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Bryld E (2002) Potentials, problems and policy implication for urban agriculture in the developing countries. Agric Hum Values 20:79–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Buchardt J (2002) The allotment movement in England 1793–1873. Royal History Society, LondonGoogle Scholar
  35. Calvet-Mir L, Gómez-Baggethun E, Reyes-García V (2012) Beyond food production: ecosystem services provided by home gardens. A case study in VallFosca, Catalan Pyrenees, Northeastern Spain. Ecol Econ 74:153–160CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Calvet-Mir L, March H, Nordh H, Pourias J, Cakovská B (2016) Motivations behind urban gardening. ‘here I feel alive’. In: Bell S, Fox-Kämper R, Keshavarz N, Benson M, Caputo S, Boori S, Voigt A (eds) Urban allotment gardens in Europe. Routledge, London, New York, pp 320–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Camps-Calvet M, Langemeyer J, Calvet-Mir L, Gómez-Baggethun E (2014) Ecosystem services of urban gardens. A case study from Barcelona. Master Thesis, Institut de Ciència i Tecnologia Ambientals (ICTA), Universitat Autònoma de BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  38. Camps-Calvet M, Langemeyer J, Calvet-Mir L, Gómez-Baggethun E, March H (2015) Sowing resilience and contestation in times of crises: the case of urban gardening movements in Barcelona. Partecipazione e Conflicto (PACO) 8(2):417–442Google Scholar
  39. Camps-Calvet M, Langemeyera J, Calvet-Mir L, Gómez-Baggethun E (2016) Ecosystem services provided by urban gardens in Barcelona, Spain: Insights for policy and planning. Environ Sci Policy 62:14–23CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Celio M, Scott CA, Giordano M (2010) Urban—agriculture water appropriation, the Hyderabad, India case. Geogr J 176:39–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chiesura A (2004) The role of urban parks for the sustainable city. Landsc Urban Plann 68:29–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chong CKCUI (2011) Spatial design in high-density urban centre districts from Chinese communities: complementary models of CRD and park in Causeway Bay, Hong Kong. Mod Urban Res 8:49–56Google Scholar
  43. City of Andernach (2010) Andernach – die Bäckerjungenstadt zum Verlieben (Andernach - the baker boy city to fall in love with). http://www.andernach.de/de/leben_in_andernach/kernstadt.html. Accessed 21 Jan 2019
  44. City of Catania (2017) Bando per l’assegnazione degli orti urbani quartiere di librino –viale s. Teodoro (Call for assignment of urban vegetable gardens in the neighborhood of Librino - avenue s. Teodoro). https://www.comune.catania.it/informazioni/avvisi/avvisi-2017/allegati-2017/bando-orti-urbani-librino/bando-assegnazione-lotti-librino-parco-librino.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2018
  45. City of Rome (2015) Bando per l’assegnazione degli orti Urbani (Call for applications for urban gardens). https://www.comune.roma.it/PCR/resources/cms/documents/Delib_N_38_17.07.2015.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2018
  46. Clark JK, Munroe DK (2013) The relational geography of peri-urban farmer adaptation. J Rural Commun Dev 8(3):15–28Google Scholar
  47. Clarke LW, Jenerette GD (2015) Biodiversity and direct ecosystem service regulation in the community gardens of Los Angeles, CA. Landsc Ecol 30(1):367–653Google Scholar
  48. Copeman D (2012) Permaculture: design principles for urban sustainability. In: Steering sustainability in an urbanising world: policy, practice and performance pp 43–54Google Scholar
  49. Corcoran MP, Kettle PH, O’Callaghan C (2017) Green shoots in vacant plots? Urban agriculture and austerity in post-crash Ireland. Int J Crit Geogr 16:305–331Google Scholar
  50. Costanza R, D’Arge R, De Groot R, Farber S, Grasso M, Hannon B, Limburg K, Naeem S, O’Neill RV, Paruelo J, Raskin RG, Sutton P, Van den Belt M (1997) The value of the world’s ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253–260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Crouch D (1997) English allotments survey: report of the joint survey of allotments in England. National Society of Allotments and Leisure Gardeners, Anglia Polytechnic University, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  52. Crouch D (2003) The art of the allotments: culture and cultivation. Nottingham, Five Leaves, p 56Google Scholar
  53. Daily GC (1997) Nature’s services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  54. De Silvey C (2003) Cultivated histories in a Scottish allotment garden. Cult Geogr 10:268–442Google Scholar
  55. De Vries S (2012) Nearby nature and human health: looking for mechanisms and their implications. In: Ward C, Aspinall P, Bell S (eds) Innovative approaches to researching landscape and health. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  56. Dechmi F, Playán E, Faci JM, Tejero M (2003a) Analysis of an irrigation district in northeastern Spain: I: characterisation and water use assessment. Agric Water Manage 61:75–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Dechmi F, Playán E, Faci JM, Tejero M, Bercero A (2003b) Analysis of an irrigation district in northeastern Spain: II. Irrigation evaluation, simulation and scheduling. Agric Water Manage 61:93–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Deelstra T, Boyd D, van den Biggelaar M (2001) Multifunctional land use—an opportunity for promoting urban agriculture in Europe. Urban Agric 4:33–35Google Scholar
  59. Degnen C (2009) On vegetable love: gardening, plants, and people in the north of England. J Roy Anthropol Inst 15:151–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka (2012) Census of population and housing. http://www.statistics.gov.lk/PopHouSat/CPH2011/Pages/Activities/Reports/FinalReport/FinalReportE.pdf. Accessed 21 May 2018
  61. Deppe C (2010) The resilient gardener: food production and self-reliance in uncertain times. Chelsea Green Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Destatis (2018) Alle politisch selbständigen Gemeinden mit ausgewählten Merkmalen am 31.12.2016 (All politically independent communities with selected characteristics on 31.12.2016). https://www.destatis.de/DE/ZahlenFakten/LaenderRegionen/Regionales/Gemeindeverzeichnis/Administrativ/Archiv/GVAuszugJ/31122016_Auszug_GV.html. Accessed 23 Jan 2019
  63. Dhakal RS, Syme G, Andre E, Sabato C (2015) Sustainable water management for urban agriculture, gardens and public space irrigation: a case study in Perth. Agric Sci 6:676–685Google Scholar
  64. Dixon JA, Kelly AC, Donati J, Lucy B, Pike L, Libby B, Hattersley A (2009) Functional foods and urban agriculture: two responses to climate change-related food insecurity. New South Wales Public Health Bull 20:14–18.  https://doi.org/10.1071/NB08044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Drescher AW, Holmer RJ, Iaquinta DL (2006) Urban home gardens and allotment gardens for sustainable livelihoods: management strategies and institutional environments. In: Kumar BM, Nair PKR (eds) Tropical homegardens. Advances in agroforestry, vol 3. Springer, Dordrecht, pp 317–338Google Scholar
  66. Eggermont H, Balian E, Azevedo JMN, Beumer V, Brodin T, Claudet J et al (2015) Nature-based solutions: new influence for environmental management and research in Europe. GAIA-Ecol Perspect Sci Soc 24(4):243–248.  https://doi.org/10.14512/gaia.24.4.9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Eigenbrod F, Bell V, Davies H, Heinemeyer A, Armsworth P, Gaston K (2011) The impact of projected increases in urbanization on ecosystem services. Proc Roy Soc Lond B: Biol Sci 278(1722):3201–3208.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.2754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Eisel U (2012) Gespenstische Diskussion über Naturerfahrung (Spooky discussion about nature experience). In: Vicenzotti V, Voigt A (eds) Kirchhoff T. Sehnsucht nach Natur. transcript, Bielefeld, pp 263–285Google Scholar
  69. European Commission (2018) Edible cities network. Integrating edible city solutions for social resilient and sustainably productive cities. Horizon 2020. Project ID: 776665. https://cordis.europa.eu/project/rcn/216082_en.html. Accessed 23 Jan 2019
  70. Falkenmark M, Molden D (2008) Wakeup to the realities of river basin closure. Water Resour Dev 24:201–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Farny H, Kleinlosen M (1986) Kleingärten in Berlin (West) – Die Bedeutung einer privaten Freiraumnutzung in einer Großstadt (Allotment gradens in Berlin (West)—The importance of a private use of free space in a large city). BerlinGoogle Scholar
  72. Fernandes ECM, Nair PKR (1986) An evaluation of the structure and function of tropical home gardens. Int Counc Res Agrofor, Nairobi, KenyaGoogle Scholar
  73. Ferres M, Townshend TG (2012) The social, health and wellbeing benefits of allotments: five societies in Newcastle. Global Urban Research Unit, Guru Working Paper 47, Newcastle University, Newcastle https://www.ncl.ac.uk/…/wwwnclacuk/globalurbanresearchunit/fil... Accessed 10 December 2018
  74. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) (2011) The state of the world's land and water resources for food and agriculture: managing systems at risk. Earthscan, LondonGoogle Scholar
  75. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation (FAO) (ed) (2018) Food for the cities. www.fao.org/. Accessed 18 Mar 2018
  76. Forster T, Hussein K, Mattheisen E (2015) City region food systems: an inclusive and integrated approach to improving food systems and urban-rural linkages. Urban Agric Mag 29:8–11Google Scholar
  77. Fox-Kämper R, Wesener A, Münderlein D, Sondermann M, McWilliam W, Kirk N (2018) Urban community gardens: An evaluation of governance approaches and related enablers and barriers at different development stages. Landsc Urban Plann 170:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Freitag G (2002) Kleingärten in der Stadt - ein Beitrag zum ökologischen Ausgleich für den Naturhaushalt (Allotment gardens in the city—a contribution to the ecological balance for the nature budget). Grüne Schriftenreihe des Bundesverbandes Deutscher Gartenfreunde 158:49–65Google Scholar
  79. Galster G, Hanson R, Ratcliffe M, Wolman H, Coleman S, Freihage J (2001) Wrestling sprawl to the ground: definition and measuring an elusive concept. Hous Policy Debate 12(4):681–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Garcia X, Llausàs L, Ribas A, Saurí D (2015) Watering the garden: Preferences for alternative sources in suburban areas of the Mediterranean coast. Local Environ 20:548–564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ghafoor A, Nadeem SM, Hussain A, Sadiq M (2001) Reclamation response of different textured saline sodic soils to EC, SAR. Pak J Soil Sci 19:92–99Google Scholar
  82. Ghaida TA, Spinnler HE, Soyeux Y, Hamieh T, Medawar S (2014) Risk-based food safety and quality governance at the interna-tional law, EU, USA, Canada and France: effective system for Lebanon as for the WTO accession. Food Control 44:267–282CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Goldstein B, Hauschild M, Fernández J, Birkved M (2016a) Testing the environmental performance of urban agriculture as a food supply in northern climates. J Clean Prod 135:984–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Goldstein B, Hauschild M, Fernández J, Birkved M (2016b) Urban versus conventional agriculture, taxonomy of resource pro-files: a review. Agron Sustain Dev 36:9.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-015-0348-4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Gómez-Baggethun E, Gren Å, Barton DN, Langemeyer J, McPhearson T, O’Farrell P, Andersson E, Hamstead Z, Kremer P (2013) Urban ecosystem services. In: Elmqvist T et al (eds) Urbanization, biodiversity and ecosystem services, vol 11. Springer (open), Dordrecht, pp 175–251. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-7088-1_11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gonzalez CG (2011) Climate change, food security, and agrobiodiversity: toward a just, resilient, and sustainable food system. Fordham Environ Law Rev 22:493–521Google Scholar
  87. Hale J, Knapp C, Bardwell L, Buchenau M, Marshall J, Sancar F, Litt JS (2011) Connecting food environments and health through the relational nature of aesthetics: Gaining insight through the community gardening experience. Soc Sci Med 72:1853–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Halweil B (2002) Home grown: the case for local food in a global market. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
  89. Hamilton AJ, Burry K, Mok H-F, Barker SF, Grove JR, Williamson VG (2014) Give peas a chance? Urban agriculture in developing countries. A Rev Agron Sustain Dev 34:45–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hamilton KL (2011) Park usage and physical activity: an exploration of park features, neighborhoods, and park programs. M.S. thesis, School of Kinesiology and Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  91. Hanjra MA, Qureshi ME (2010) Global water crises and future food security in an era of climate change. Food Policy 37:365–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Heimlich RE (1989) Metropolitan agriculture: farming in the city’s shadow. J Am Plann Assoc 55:457–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hoekstra AY, Chapagain AK (2008) Globalization of water: sharing planets freshwater resources. The global component of fresh water demand and supply: an assessment of virtual water flow between nations as a result of trade in agriculture and industrial products. Water Int 33:19–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hoffmann H (2002) Urbaner Gartenbau im Schatten der Betonriesen (Urban horticulture in the shade of concrete giants). Grüne Schriftenreihe des Bundesverbandes Deutscher Gartenfreunde 158:84–98Google Scholar
  95. Huertas JM, Huertas G (2004) La Barcelona Desapareguda (The disappeared Barcelona). Angle Editorial, Barcelona (in Catalan)Google Scholar
  96. Hufnagl A (2016) Stadtgärten in Barcelona: Untersuchungen zur aktuellen Situation und Nutzung (Urban gardens in Barcelona: investigation on the current situation and use). Master Thesis, Paris Lodron University, Salzburg, AustriaGoogle Scholar
  97. Jiayan L, Xiaoyan T, Qingyi C (2017) Practice and reflection on participatory community planning in transformation: a case study of community Y in Qinghe street, Beijing. Shanghai Urban Plann Rev 2:23–28Google Scholar
  98. Jing Q (2011) The comparison of allotment garden in Europe and community garden in the United States. Mod Urban Res 1:86–92Google Scholar
  99. Johnston J (1990) Nature areas for city people: a guide to the successful establishment of community wildlife sites. In: Ecology handbook, Nr 14. London Ecology Unit, LondonGoogle Scholar
  100. Kasanko M, Barredo JI, Lavalle C, McCormick N, Demicheli L, Sagris V, Brezger A (2006) Are European cities becoming dis-persed? a comparative analysis of 15 European urban areas. Landsc Urban Plan 77:111–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Keshavarz N, Bell S (2016) History of urban gardens in Europe. In: Bell S, Fox-Kämper R, Keshavarz N, Benson M, Caputo S, Boori S, Voigt A (eds) Urban allotment gardens in Europe. Routledge, London, New York, pp 8–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Kingsley J, Townsend M, Henderson C (2009) Cultivating health and wellbeing: members’ perceptions of the health benefits of a Port Melbourne community garden. Leisure Stud 28:207–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Knight L, Riggs W (2010) Nourishing urbanism: a case for a new urban paradigm. Int J Sustain Dev 8:116–126Google Scholar
  104. Knudsen MT, Halberg N, Olesen JE, Byrne J, Iyer V, Toly N (2006) Global trends in agriculture and food systems. In: Global development of organic agriculture-challenges and prospects, pp 1–48Google Scholar
  105. Koller E (1988) Umwelt-, sozial-, wirtschafts- und freizeitgeographische Aspekte von Schrebergärten in Großstädten, dargestellt am Beispiel Regensburg (Environmental, social, economic and recreational geographic aspects of allotments in large cities, illustrated by the example of Regensburg). Regensburger Beiträge zur Regionalgeographie und Raumplanung 1, Universität Regensburge, RegensburgGoogle Scholar
  106. Kosack L (2016) Die Essbare Stadt Andernach (The edible city of Andernach). Standort 40(2):138–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Kunhamu TK (2013) Tropical home gardens. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316668174_TROPICAL_HOMEGARDENS. Accessed 17 June 2018
  108. Kuper M, Malaterre PO (1994) System objectives and localized control: equity verses adequacy. In: Paper presented at 1994 international program review, International lrrigation Management Institute, Colombo, Sri Lanka, 7–10 Nov 1994Google Scholar
  109. La Rosa D, Privitera R (2013) Characterization of non-urbanized areas for land-use planning of agricultural and green infrastruc-ture in urban context. Landsc Urban Plann 109:94–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. La Rosa D, Barbarossa L, Privitera R, Martinico F (2014) Agriculture and the city: a method for sustainable planning of new forms of agriculture in urban contexts. Land Use Policy 41:290–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. La Rosa D, Geneletti D, Spyra M, Albert C, Furst C (2018) Sustainable Planning for Peri-urban Landscapes. In: Perera AH et al (eds) Ecosystem services from forest landscapes: broad scale considerations. Springer International Publisher, Cham, pp 89–126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-74515-2_5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Laidlaw J, Magee L (2014) Towards urban food sovereignty: the trials and tribulations of community-based aquaponics enterprises in Milwaukee and Melbourne. Local Environ 21:573–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Lange A, Piorr A, Siebert R, Zasada I (2013) Spatial differentiation of farm diversification: how rural attractiveness and vicinity to cities determine farm households’ response to the CAP. Land Use Policy 31:136–144CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Langemeyer J, Latkowska MJ, Gómez-Baggethun EM, Voigt A, Calvet-Mir L, Pourias L, Camps-Calvet M, Orsini F, Breuste J, Artmann M, Jokinen A, Béchet A, Brito da Luz A, Hurtsthouse A, Stepien MP, Balezntine L (2016) Ecosystem services from urban gardens. In: Bell S, Fox-Kämpfer R, Keshavarz N, Benson M, Caputo S, Nooria S, Voigt A (eds) Urban allotment gardens in Europe. Routledge, London, New York, pp 115–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Larson JT (2012) A comparative study of community garden system in Germany and the United States and their role in creating sustainable communities. Arboricult J Int J Urban Forest 35:121–141Google Scholar
  116. Leake J, Adam-Bradford A, Rigby J (2009) Health benefits of ‘grow your own’ food in urban areas: implications for contaminated land risk assessment and risk management? Environ Health 8(Suppl 1):S6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Lecina S, Playán E, Isidoro D, Dechmi F, Causapé J, Faci JM (2005) Irrigation evaluation and simulation at the irrigation district V of Bardenas (Spain). Agric Water Manage 73:223–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Legesse A, Tesfay G, Abay F (2016) The impact of urban home gardening on household socio-economy. Arts Des Stud 39:21Google Scholar
  119. Lin BB, Philpott SM, Jha S (2015) The future of urban agriculture and biodiversity-ecosystem services: challenges and next steps. Basic Appl Ecol 16:189–201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Lovell S (2010) Multifunctional urban agriculture for sustainable land use planning in the United States. Sustain 2:2499–2522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. McCormack LA, Laska MN, Larson NI, Story M (2010) Review of the nutritional implications of farmers’ markets and community gardens: a call for evaluation and research efforts. J Am Diet Assoc 110:399–408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. MEAB - Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Board (2005) Ecosystems and human well-being, synthesis. In: Millennium ecosystem assessment. Island Press. http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/. Accessed 19 May 2012
  123. Megson D, Dack S, Moore M (2011) Limitations of the CLEA model when assessing human health risks from dioxins and furans in soil at an allotments site in Rochdale, NW England. J Environ Monit 13:1983–1990.  https://doi.org/10.1039/c1em10096cCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Meier T (2017) Planetary boundaries of agriculture and nutrition—an anthropocene approach. In: Leinfelder R, Hamann A, Kirstein J (eds) Proceedings of the symposium on communicating and designing the future of food in the anthropocene. Bachmann Verlag, Berlin, pp 67–76Google Scholar
  125. Migliorini P, Scaltriti B (2012) Evaluation of sustainability of the farms in the Agricultural Park of South Milan and their produc-tion chain. New Medit 11(4):53–56Google Scholar
  126. Mikulec P, Diduck AR, Froese B, Unger H, MacKenzie K (2015) Legal and policy barriers to community gardening in Winnipeg, Canada. Can J Urban Res 22:69–89Google Scholar
  127. Min L, Changdong Y (2015) Threshold standard and global distribution of high-density cities. World Reg Stud 1:38–45Google Scholar
  128. Mok HF, Williamson VG, Grove JR, Burry K, Barker SF, Hamilton AJ (2014) Strawberry fields forever? Urban agriculture in developed countries: a review. Agron for Sustain Dev 34(1):21–43.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0156-7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Montanari A, Young G, Savenije HHG, Hughes D, Wagener T, Ren LL, Koutsoyiannis D, Cudennec C, Toth E, Grimaldi S, Blöschl G, Sivapalan M, Beven K, Gupta H, Hipsey M, Schaefli B, Arheimer B, Boegh E, Schymanski SJ, Di Baldassarre G, Yu B, Hubert P, Huang Y, Schumann A, Post DA, Srinivasan V, Harman C, Thompson S, Rogger M, Viglione A, McMillan H, Characklis G, Pang Z, Belyaev V (2013) PantaRhei-everything flows: change in hydrology and society-the IAHS scientific decade 2013–2022. Hydrol Sci J J Des Sci Hydrol 58:1256–1275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Morley A, Farrier A, Dooris M (2017) Propagating success? the incredible edible model. Final report. https://www.incredible-edible-todmorden.co.uk/file_download/332/IET+Evaluation+Report+FINAL.compressed.pdf Accessed 23 Jan 2019
  131. Mougeot LJA (1999) Urban agriculture: definition, presence, potential and risks, main policy challenges. CFP Report Series, 31. IDRC, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  132. Mougeot LJA (2006) Growing better cities: urban agriculture for sustainable development. International Development Research Centre, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  133. Mubvami T, Mushamba S, de Zeeuw H (2006) Integration of agriculture in urban land use planning. In: van Veenhuizen R (ed) Cities farming for the future: urban agriculture for green and productive cities. IDRC, Silang, the Philippines, pp 54–74Google Scholar
  134. Müller C (Hrsg) (2011) Urban Gardening - Über die Rückkehr der Gärten in die Stadt (Urban Gardening—About the return of the gardens to the city). oekom Verlag, MünchenGoogle Scholar
  135. Nellemann C (2009) The environmental food crisis: the environment’s role in averting future food crises: a UNEP rapid response assessment. UNEP/Earthprint, Arendal, NorwayGoogle Scholar
  136. Niemelä J, Saarela SR, Södermann T, Kopperoinen L, Yli-Pelkonen V, Väre S, Kotze DJ (2010) Using the ecosystem service approach for better planning and conservation of urban green spaces: a Finnland case study. Biodivers Conserv 19:3225–3243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Nugent R (2000) The impact of urban agriculture on the household and local economies. In: Bakker N, Dubbeling M, Gündel S, Sabel-Koschella U, De Zeeuw H (eds) Growing cities, growing food: urban agriculture on the policy agenda, a reader on urban agriculture. DSE/ETC, Feldafing, Germany, pp 67–97Google Scholar
  138. Olsson EGA, Kerselaers E, Kristense LS, Primdahl J, Rogge E, Wästfelt A (2016) Peri-Urban food production and its relation to urban resilience. Sustainability 8:1–21.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su8121340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Opitz I, Berges R, Piorr A, Krikser T (2016) Contributing to food security in urban areas: differences between urban agriculture and peri-urban agriculture in the Global North. Agric Human Values 33(2):341–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Orlando G (2011) Sustainable food vs. unsustainable politics in the city of Palermo: The case of an organic farmers’ market. City Soc 23:173–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Pakistan Bureau of Statistics (2017) Census of Pakistan. http://www.pbs.gov.pk/sites/default/files/PAKISTAN%20TEHSIL%20WISE%20FOR%20WEB%20CENSUS_2017.pdf. Accessed 29 June 2019
  142. Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) (2019) Pakistan meteorological department. http://www.pmd.gov.pk. Accessed 22 Aug 2019
  143. Parco Agricolo Sud Milano (2007) Discovering the Parco Agricolo Sud Milano. http://www.cittametropolitana.mi.it/export/sites/default/parco_agricolo_sud_milano/pubblicazioni/.content/allegati/guide/GUIDA_PARCO_SUD.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2018
  144. Pearson LJ, Peason L, Pearson CJ (2010) Sustainable urban agriculture: stocktake and opportunities. Int J Agric Sustain 8:7–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Permaculture Association (2018) Change your world. https://www.permaculture.org.uk/. Accessed 21 Jan 2019
  146. Pileri P, Maggi M (2010) Sustainable planning? First results in land uptakes in rural, natural and protected areas: the Lombardia case study (Italy). J Land Use Sci 5(2):105–122.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1747423x.2010.481078CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Playán E, Mateos L (2006) Modernization and optimization of irrigation systems to increase water productivity. Agric Water Manage 80:100–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Playán E, Slatni A, Castillo R, Faci JM (2000) A case study for irrigation modernisation: II scenario analysis. Agric Water Manage 42:335–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Pölling B, Mergenthaler M, Lorleberg W (2016) Professional urban agriculture and its characteristic business models in Metropo-lis Ruhr, Germany. Land Use Policy 58:366–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Poulsen MN (2017) Cultivating citizenship, equity, and social inclusion? Putting civic agriculture into practice through urban farming. Agricult Hum Values 34(1):135–148.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10460-016-9699-yCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Prathapar SA (2000) Water shortages in the 21st century. In: Cadman H (ed) The food and environment tightrope. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, Canberra, Australia, pp 125–133Google Scholar
  152. Provè C, Dessein J, de Krom M (2016) Taking context into account in urban agriculture governance: case studies of Warsaw (Poland) and Ghent (Belgium). Land Use Policy 56:16–26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Pulighe G, Lupia F (2016) Mapping spatial patterns of urban agriculture in Rome (Italy) using Google Earth and web-mapping services. Land Use Policy 59:49–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Pushpakumara DKNG, Marambe B, Silva GLLP, Weerahewa J, Punyawardena BVR (2012) A review research on home gardens in Sri Lanka: the status, importance and future perspective. Tropical Agric 160:55–125Google Scholar
  155. Qadir M, Schubert S, Ghafoor A. Murtaza G (2003) Agriculture water management in water starved countries: Challenges and opportunities. Agric Water Manage 62:165–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Qasimpour E, Abbasi A (2019) Assessment of agricultural water resources sustainability in Arid regions using virtual water concept: case of South Khorasan province, Iran. Water 11:1–16Google Scholar
  157. Qureshi S, Kazmi SJH, Breuste J (2010) Ecological disturbances due to high cutback in the green infrastructure of Karachi: analyses of public perception about associated health problems. Urban For Urban Green 9:187–198CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Recasens X, Alfranca O, Maldonado L (2016) The adaptation of urban farms to cities: the case of the Alella wine region within the Barcelona Metropolitan Region. Land Use Policy 56:158–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Register R (2006) EcoCities: rebuilding cities in balance with nature. Gabriola Island, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  160. Roca E (2000) Montjuïc, la muntanya de la Ciutat (Montjuïc, the mountain of the city). Institut d’Estudis Catalans, Secció de Ciències I Tecnologia, Barcelona (in Catalan)Google Scholar
  161. Rosol M (2006) Gemeinschaftsgärten in Berlin: Eine qualitative Untersuchung zu Potenzialen und Risiken bürgerschaftlichen Engagements im Grünflächenbereich vor dem Hintergrund des Wandels von Staat und Planung (Community gardens in Berlin: a qualitative study on the potentials and risks of civic engagement in the green space sector against the background of the change of state and planning). Taschenbuch, Verlag Mensch & Buch, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  162. Royal Horticultural Society (2013) Eight reasons to get an allotment. RHS Flower Show Tatton Park. www.rhs.org.uk. Accessed 25 July 2013
  163. Rubino A (2007) The allotment gardens of the Ile de France: a tool for social development. J Mediterr Ecol 8:67–75Google Scholar
  164. Rusche K, Fox-Kämper R, Reimer M, Rimsea-Fitschen C, Wilker J (2015) Grüne Infrastruktur – eine wichtige Aufgabe der Stadtplanung (Green infrastructure - an important task of urban planning). ILS – Institut für Landes- und Stadtentwicklungsforschung (ed) ILS-Trends 3/2015, pp 1–8. https://www.ils-forschung.de/files_publikationen/pdfs/ILS-TRENDS_3_15.pdf. Accessed 3 Sept 2018
  165. Russo A, Escobedo FJ, Cirella GT, Zerbe S (2017) Edible green infrastructure: An approach and review of provisioning ecosystem services and disservices in urban environments. Agric Ecosyst Environ 242:53–66.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2017.03.026CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Sasidharan V, Willits F, Godbey G (2005) Cultural differences in urban recreation patterns: an examination of park usage and activity participation across six population subgroups. Manag Leisure 10:19–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Saunders M (2016) Birds, Bees and Bugs: Your Garden is an Ecosystem, and it Needs Looking After. https://www.google.lk/amp/s/theconservation.com/amp/birds-bees-and-bugs-your-garden-is-an-ecosystem-and-it-needs-looking-after-65226. Accessed 21 May 2018
  168. Schemel HJ (1998) Naturerfahrungsräume. Ein humanökologischer Ansatz für naturnahe Erholung in Stadt und Land (Nature of experience. A human ecology approach for nature-friendly recreation in city and country). In: Angewandte Landschaftsökologie, Nr. 19. BfN-Schriften-Vertrieb, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  169. Schoneboom A (2010) Growing your own: Designing an ethnographic approach to study the form, function and fell on allotment work. The Cikty University of New York, New York https://www.liverpool.ac.uk/…/ethnography2010/Schoneboom.p... Accessed 10 Dec 2018
  170. Sharma K, Cheng Z, Grewal PS (2015) Relationship between soil heavy metal contamination and soil food web health in vacant lots slated for urban agriculture in two post-industrial cities. Urban Ecosyst 3:835–855CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Skaggs RK, Samani Z (2005) Farm size, irrigation practices and on farm irrigation efficiency. Irrig Drain 54:43–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Soga M, Cox DTC, Yamaura Y, Gaston KJ, Kurisu K, Hanaki K (2017) Health benefits of urban allotment gardening: Improved physical and psychological well-being and social integration. Int J Env Res Public Health 14:71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Sophocleous M (1997) Managing water resources systems: why safe yield is not sustainable. Ground Water 35:561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Sophocleous M (2000) From safe yield to sustainable results of water resources, the Kansas experience. J Hydrol 235:27–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Sorace A (2001) Value to wildlife of urban-agricultural parks: a case study from rome urban area. Environ Manage 4:547–560CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Specht K, Weith T, Swoboda K, Siebert R (2016) Socially acceptable urban agriculture businesses. Agron Sustain Dev 36:17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stewart N (2018) Urban gardening in Germany. www.young-germany.de/topic/live/…/urban-gardening-in-germany. Accessed 16 Mar 2018
  178. Swinton S, Lupi MF, Proberstson GP, Hamilton SK (2007) Ecosystem services and agriculture: cultivating agricultural ecosystems for diverse benefits. Ecol Econ 64:245–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Taylor JR, Lovell ST, Wortman SE, Chan M (2017) Ecosystem services and tradeoffs in the home food gardens of African American, Chinese-origin and Mexican-origin households in Chicago, IL. Renew Agric Food Syst 32:69–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. The Economics of Ecosystems and Biodiversity (TEEB) (2010) The economics of ecosystems and biodiversity: ecological and economic foundations. UNEP/Earthprint. www.teebweb.org. Accessed 27 Mar 2019
  181. Turner B (2011) Embodied connections: sustainability, food systems and community gardens. Local Environ 16:509–522CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. UNDP (1996) Urban agriculture: food, jobs and sustainable cities. United Nations Development Programme publication series for habitat II, vol 1. United Nations, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  183. van En R (1995) Eating for your community: towards agriculture supported community. Context 42(Fall):29–31Google Scholar
  184. Veal AJ (2006) The use of urban parks. Ann Leisure Res 9:245–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Wästfelt A, Zhang Q (2016) Reclaiming localisation for revitalising agriculture: a case study of peri-urban agricultural change in Gothenburg, Sweden. J Rural Stud 47:172–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Waffle AD, Corry RC, Gillespie TJ, Brown RD (2017) Urban heat island as agricultural opportunities: an innovative approach. Landsc Urban Plan 161:103–114CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Walker EW, Locks DP, Car G (2015) Social responses to water management decision. Environ Process 2:485–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. WAPDA, CSU (1978) Operational irrigation evaluations of three watercourse systems. Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA) and Colorado State University (CSU), USAGoogle Scholar
  189. Weber P, Neumann P (1993) Freiraumsicherung versus Wohnraumbeschaffung. Bewertung und Bedeutung von Gartenflächen im Stadtteil Osnabrück/ Kalkhügel (Freedom protection versus housing purchase. Evaluation and significance of garden areas in the district Osnabrück/ Kalkhügel). Arbeitsberichte der Arbeitsgemeinschaft Angewandte Geographie Münster 23, Universität Münster, MünsterGoogle Scholar
  190. Wilson B, Chakraborty A (2013) The environmental impacts of sprawl: emergent themes from the past decade of planning research. Sustainability 5(8):3302–3327.  https://doi.org/10.3390/su5083302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Xiaojie W, Guotai Y (2014) Initial exploration on the management of community gardens against the backdrop of urbanization. In: Chinese society of landscape architecture, collected papers for 2014 annual meeting of Chinese society of landscape architecture (vol II). Chinese Society of Landscape Architecture, BeijingGoogle Scholar
  192. Yang Z, Hao P, Liu W, Cai J (2016) Peri-urban agricultural development in Beijing: Varied forms, innovative practices and policy implications. Habitat Int 56:222–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Yuelai L (2016) Community gardening—an effective avenue for micro upgrading of urban space. Public Art 4:10–15Google Scholar
  194. Yuelai L, Keluan Y, Min W, Ying W (2017) New approaches to community garden practices in high-density high-rise urban areas: a case study of shanghai KIC garden. Shanghai Urban Plann Rev 2:29–33Google Scholar
  195. ZALF (Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung e.V.) (2013) Urbane Landwirtschaft und “Green Production” als Teil eines nachhaltigen Landmanagements (Urban agriculture and “green production” as part of sustainable land management) (in German). Diskussionspapier Nr. 6, MünchebergGoogle Scholar
  196. Zappata Romana (2018) Zappata romana. www.zappataromana.net. Accessed 30 June 2018
  197. Zasada I (2011) Multifunctional peri-urban agriculture—a review of societal demands and the provision of goods and services by farming. Land Use Policy 28:639–648CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Zezza A, Tasciotti L (2010) Urban agriculture, poverty, and food security: empirical evidence from a sample of developing countries. Food Policy 35:265–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leibniz Institute of Ecological Urban and Regional Development (IOER)DresdenGermany
  2. 2.Department of Geography and GeologyUniversity of SalzburgSalzburgAustria

Personalised recommendations