• Mohamed A. Baky Fahmy


Aposthia is a rare congenital condition in humans, in which the foreskin of the penis is completely missing in a normally developed penis and urethra. Almost all mammal penises have a foreskin which called the preputial sheath or penile sheath into which the whole penis is retracted, only monotremes (platypus and echidna) completely lack foreskins. It is suggested that the extensive study on aposthia may be helpful for proper understanding of the impaction of circumcision in health and reducing the controversy in medical sciences about it, as cases of aposthia could raise a couple of questions which deserve further researches:
  • Is circumcised “aposthic” penis is the natural normal penis and having a prepuce is a pathological condition which should be treated by its removal?

  • Is aposthia a feature of the dignified leader or the first man “Adam”, and circumcision is a ritual trial to have a copy or similarity to the symbolic leader?

  • Aposthia being a quantitative recessive trait, as had been suggested by some researchers, may be prevalent in certain ancient healthy and comparatively developed inbred population isolates.


Aposthia Preputial agenesis Microposthia Neo-prepuce and preputial restoration 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed A. Baky Fahmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAl Azher UniversityCairoEgypt

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