Posthitis and Balanoposthitis

  • Mohamed A. Baky Fahmy


The genital organs of the human body are prone to a variety of infective diseases which include bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoal. Balanitis is a common inflammatory disease affecting mainly the glans penis, it could also affect minority of female’s clitoris, but posthitis is an isolated inflammation of the prepuce. The infective rate of these diseases increase recently many folds depending on the sexual activity and immune status of the individuals. Preputial inflammation is responsible for significant morbidity, including acquired phimosis, balanoposthitis, and lichen sclerosus. Medical treatment can be challenging and a cost burden to the health system. Reducing prevalence is therefore crucial. Some communities, depending on cultural and religious bases, considering circumcision as a definitive treatment for such cases. In European countries with a minimal rate of circumcision the management of balanoposthitis includes improvement of the hygiene with gentle foreskin retraction, and cleaning. There is a false believe that posthitis and balanoposthitis are rare among circumcised children, many neglected children, specially those who are still in napkins, may develop the same pathology as the intact peer. Special entities of balanitis like balanitis xerotica obliterans and Zoon’s balanitis will be discussed separately.


Balanitis Posthitis Balanoposthitis Candidiasis Clitorodynia Preputial cavity abscess 


C. albicans

Candida albicans


Male circumcision


Sexually transmitted infection


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohamed A. Baky Fahmy
    • 1
  1. 1.Pediatric SurgeryAl Azher UniversityCairoEgypt

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