Bone: Functions, Structure and Physiology

  • Joana da Costa ReisEmail author
  • Maria Teresa OliveiraEmail author
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computational Vision and Biomechanics book series (LNCVB, volume 35)


In this chapter, bone functions, regulation, morphological structure and physiology are revisited. Bone is a highly complex tissue, very sensitive and responsive to external and internal stimuli, and intimately intertwined with other organs. From embryogenesis to endocrine regulation and bone remodelling, a global assessment is presented. Considering the scope of this book, special emphasis is given to how cell structure and tissue organization modulate the response to mechanical stimuli.



This work has been partially supported by the European Commission under the 7th Framework Programme through the project Restoration, grant agreement CP-TP 280575-2 and through Portugal 2020/Alentejo 2020, grant POCI-01-0145-FEDER-032486. The support from Hamamatsu Photonics in providing the NanoZoomer SQ is also gratefully acknowledged. The authors would also like to thank Mr. Pedro Félix Pinto for the artwork included in this chapter that he so kindly prepared and made available.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Escola de Ciências e TecnologiaUniversidade de ÉvoraÉvoraPortugal

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