Advertisement

Antioxidants, Therapeutic Options, and Regulation of the Immune Responses

  • Loutfy H. MadkourEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology book series (NANOMED)

Abstract

The European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) provides an ideal framework to establish multidisciplinary research networks. COST Action BM1203 (EU-ROS) represents a consortium of researchers from different disciplines who are dedicated to providing new insights and tools for better understanding redox biology and medicine and, in the long run, to finding new therapeutic strategies to target dysregulated redox processes in various diseases. This chapter highlights the major achievements of EU-ROS as well as research updates and new perspectives arising from its members. The formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is an established hallmark of our aerobic environment and metabolism but RONS also acts as messengers via redox regulation of essential cellular processes. The fact that many diseases have been found to be associated with oxidative stress established the theory of oxidative stress as a trigger of diseases that can be corrected by antioxidant therapy. However, while experimental studies support this thesis, clinical studies still generate controversial results, due to the complex pathophysiology of oxidative stress in humans.

Keywords

ABCA1 ABCG1 HDL transporters Cholesterol efflux Immune responses Antioxidants Redox therapeutics Inflammation Oxidative stress 

References

  1. Adorni MP, Zimetti F, Billheimer JT, Wang N, Rader DJ, Phillips MC, Rothblat GH (2007) The roles of different pathways in the release of cholesterol from macrophages. J Lipid Res 48:2453–2462 PubMed: 17761631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agarwal R, Agarwal C, Ichikawa H, Singh RP, Aggarwal BB (2006) Anticancer potential of silymarin: from bench to bed side. Anticancer Res 26:4457–4498Google Scholar
  3. Ahmed S, Anuntiyo J, Malemud CJ, Haqqi TM (2005) Biological basis for the use of botanicals in osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis: a review. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2:301–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ahmed S, Pakozdi A, Koch AE (2006) Regulation of interleukin-1β-induced chemokine production and matrix metalloproteinase 2 activation by epigallocatechin-3-gallate in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Arthritis Rheum 54:2393–2401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aiello RJ, Brees D, Bourassa PA, Royer L, Lindsey S, Coskran T, Haghpassand M, Francone OL (2002) Increased atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic mice with inactivation of ABCA1 in macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 22:630–637 PubMed: 11950702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Alam MN, Bristi NJ, Rafiquzzaman M (2013) Review on in vivo and in vitro methods evaluation of antioxidant activity. Saudi Pharm J 21:143–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ali AM, Habeeb RA, El-Azizi NO, Khattab DA, Abo-Shady RA, Elkabarity RH (2014) Higher nitric oxide levels are associated with disease activity in Egyptian rheumatoid arthritis patients. Rev Bras Reumatol 54:446–451CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Alidoost F, Gharagozloo M, Bagherpour B, Jafarian A, Sajjadi SE, Hourfar H, Moayedi B (2006) Effects of silymarin on the proliferation and glutathione levels of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from beta-thalassemia major patients. Int Immunopharmacol 6:1305–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Azuma Y, Takada M, Shin HW, Kioka N, Nakayama K, Ueda K (2009) Retroendocytosis pathway of ABCA1/apoA-I contributes to HDL formation. Genes Cells 14:191–204 PubMed: 19170766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baldan A, Pei L, Lee R, Tarr P, Tangirala RK, Weinstein MM, Frank J, Li AC, Tontonoz P, Edwards PA (2006) Impaired development of atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic Ldlr−/− and ApoE−/− mice transplanted with Abcg1−/− bone marrow. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2301–2307 PubMed: 16888235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baldan A, Gomes AV, Ping P, Edwards PA (2008) Loss of ABCG1 results in chronic pulmonary inflammation. J Immunol 180:3560–3568 PubMed: 18292583CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Basso F, Amar MJ, Wagner EM, Vaisman B, Paigen B, Santamarina-Fojo S, Remaley AT (2006) Enhanced ABCG1 expression increases atherosclerosis in LDLr-KO mice on a western diet. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 351:398–404 PubMed: 17070501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bast A, Haenen GR (2013) Ten misconceptions about antioxidants. Trends Pharmacol Sci 34:430–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bates SR, Tao JQ, Collins HL, Francone OL, Rothblat GH (2005) Pulmonary abnormalities due to ABCA1 deficiency in mice. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 289:L980–L989 PubMed: 16055479CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Batinic-Haberle I, Reboucas JS, Spasojevic I (2010) Superoxide dismutase mimics: chemistry, pharmacology, and therapeutic potential. Antioxid Redox Signal 13:877–918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Batinic-Haberle I, Tovmasyan A, Roberts ER, Vujaskovic Z, Leong KW, Spasojevic I (2014) SOD therapeutics: latest insights into their structure–activity relationships and impact on the cellular redox-based signaling pathways. Antioxid Redox Signal 20:2372–2415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Batinic-Haberle I, Tovmasyan A, Spasojevic I (2015) An educational overview of the chemistry, biochemistry and therapeutic aspects of Mn porphyrins—from superoxide dismutation to H2O2-driven pathways. Redox Biol. 5:43–65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bazzichi L, Ciompi M, Betti L et al (2002) Impaired glutathione reductase activity and levels of collagenase and elastase in synovial fluid in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Rheumatol 20:761–766Google Scholar
  19. Bensinger SJ, Bradley MN, Joseph SB, Zelcer N, Janssen EM, Hausner MA, Shih R, Parks JS, Edwards PA, Jamieson BD, Tontonoz P (2008) LXR signaling couple’s sterol metabolism to proliferation in the acquired immune response. Cell 134:97–111 PubMed: 18614014CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Biedermann D, Vavrikova E, Cvak L, Kren V (2014) Chemistry of silybin. Nat Prod Rep 31:1138–1157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Biswas SK (2016) Does the interdependence between oxidative stress and inflammation explain the antioxidant paradox? Oxid Med Cell Longev 2016:5698931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Burgess B, Naus K, Chan J, Hirsch-Reinshagen V, Tansley G, Matzke L, Chan B, Wilkinson A, Fan J, Donkin J, Balik D, Tanaka T, Ou G, Dyer R, Innis S, McManus B, Lutjohann D, Wellington C (2008) Overexpression of human ABCG1 does not affect atherosclerosis in fat-fed ApoE-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:1731–1737 PubMed: 18599800CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Casas AT, Hubsch AP, Rogers BC, Doran JE (1995) Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein reduces LPS-stimulated TNF alpha. J Surg Res 59:544–552 PubMed: 7475000CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Casas AI, Dao VT, Daiber A, Maghzal GJ, Di Lisa F, Kaludercic N, Leach S, Cuadrado A, Jaquet V, Seredenina T, Krause KH, Lopez MG, Stocker R, Ghezzi P, Schmidt HH (2015) Reactive oxygen-related diseases: therapeutic targets and emerging clinical indications. Antioxid Redox Signal 23:1171–1185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cedergren J, Forslund T, Sundqvist T, Skogh T (2007) Intracellular oxidative activation in synovial fluid neutrophils from patients with rheumatoid arthritis but not from other arthritis patients. J Rheumatol 34:2162–2170Google Scholar
  26. Cerhan JR, Saag KG, Merlino LA, Mikuls TR, Criswell LA (2003) Antioxidant micronutrients and risk of rheumatoid arthritis in a cohort of older women. Am J Epidemiol 157:345–354CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chandran B, Goel A (2012) A randomized, pilot study to assess the efficacy and safety of curcumin in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis. Phytother Res 26:1719–1725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chen W, Sun Y, Welch C, Gorelik A, Leventhal AR, Tabas I, Tall AR (2001) Preferential ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cholesterol efflux from late endosomes/lysosomes. J Biol Chem 276:43564–43569 PubMed: 11559713CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Chen W, Wang N, Tall AR (2005) A PEST deletion mutant of ABCA1 shows impaired internalization and defective cholesterol efflux from late endosomes. J Biol Chem 280:29277–29281 PubMed: 15951431CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Choi YJ, Lee W-S, Lee E-G, Sung M-S, Yoo W-H (2014) Sulforaphane inhibits IL-1β-induced proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and the production of MMPs, COX-2, and PGE2. Inflammation 37:1496–1503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dai L, Lamb D, Leake D et al (2000) Evidence for oxidised low density lipoprotein in synovial fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients. Free Radic Res 32:479–486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Dai L, Claxson A, Marklund S et al (2003) Amelioration of antigen-induced arthritis in rats by transfer of extracellular superoxide dismutase and catalase genes. Gene Ther 10:550–558CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dalle-Donne I, Rossi R, Giustarini D, Milzani A, Colombo R (2003) Protein carbonyl groups as biomarkers of oxidative stress. Clin Chim Acta 329:23–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Darvishi Khezri H, Salehifar E, Kosaryan M, Aliasgharian A, Jalali H, Hadian Amree A (2016) Potential effects of silymarin and its flavonolignan components in patients with beta-thalassemia major: a comprehensive review in 2015. Adv Pharmacol Sci 2016:3046373Google Scholar
  35. Decendit A, Mamani-Matsuda M, Aumont V et al (2013) Malvidin-3-O-β glucoside, major grape anthocyanin, inhibits human macrophage-derived inflammatory mediators and decreases clinical scores in arthritic rats. Biochem Pharmacol 86:1461–1467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Denis M, Landry YD, Zha X (2008) ATP-binding cassette A1-mediated lipidation of apolipoprotein A-I occurs at the plasma membrane and not in the endocytic compartments. J Biol Chem 283:16178–16186 PubMed: 18385134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Diaz B, Courtneidge SA (2012) Redox signaling at invasive microdomains in cancer cells. Free Radic Biol Med 52:247–256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. El-barbary AM, Khalek MAA, Elsalawy AM, Hazaa SM (2011) Assessment of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients. Egypt Rheumatol 33:179–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Esposito F, Ammendola R, Faraonio R, Russo T, Cimino F (2004) Redox control of signal transduction, gene expression and cellular senescence. Neurochem Res 29:617–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Faulkner LE, Panagotopulos SE, Johnson JD, Woollett LA, Hui DY, Witting SR, Maiorano JN, Davidson WS (2008) An analysis of the role of a retroendocytosis pathway in ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux from macrophages. J Lipid Res 49:1322–1332 PubMed: 18359958CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Fernandes AS, Costa J, Gaspar J, Rueff J, Cabral MF, Cipriano M, Castro M, Oliveira NG (2012) Development of pyridine-containing macrocyclic copper (II) complexes: potential role in the redox modulation of oxaliplatin toxicity in human breast cells. Free Radic Res 46:1157–1166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Fibach E, Tan ES, Jamuar S, Ng I, Amer J, Rachmilewitz EA (2010) Amelioration of oxidative stress in red blood cells from patients with beta-thalassemia major and intermedia and E-beta-thalassemia following administration of a fermented papaya preparation. Phytother Res 24:1334–1338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Filippin LI, Vercelino R, Marroni N, Xavier RM (2008) Redox signalling and the inflammatory response in rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Exp Immunol 152:415–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Flegel WA, Baumstark MW, Weinstock C, Berg A, Northoff H (1993) Prevention of endotoxin-induced monokine release by human low- and high-density lipoproteins and by apolipoprotein A-I. Infect Immun 61:5140–5146 PubMed: 8225591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Forman HJ, Davies KJ, Ursini F (2014) how do nutritional antioxidants really work: nucleophilic tone and para-hormesis versus free radical scavenging in vivo. Free Radic Biol Med 66:24–35CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Franco SS, De Falco L, Ghaffari S, Brugnara C, Sinclair DA, Matte A, Iolascon A, Mohandas N, Bertoldi M, An X, Siciliano A, Rimmele P, Cappellini MD, Michan S, Zoratti E, Anne J, De Franceschi L (2014) Resveratrol accelerates erythroid maturation by activation of FoxO3 and ameliorates anemia in beta-thalassemic mice. Haematologica 99:267–275CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Francone OL, Royer L, Boucher G, Haghpassand M, Freeman A, Brees D, Aiello RJ (2005) Increased cholesterol deposition, expression of scavenger receptors, and response to chemotactic factors in Abca1-deficient macrophages. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:1198–1205 PubMed: 15831807CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Fujikawa Y, Roma LP, Sobotta MC, Rose AJ, Diaz MB, Locatelli G, Breckwoldt MO, Misgeld T, Kerschensteiner M, Herzig S, Muller-Decker K, Dick TP (2016) Mouse redox histology using genetically encoded probes. Sci Signal 9:rs1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Garcia J, Carvalho AT, Dourado DF, Baptista P, de Lourdes Bastos M, Carvalho F (2014) New in silico insights into the inhibition of RNAP II by alpha-amanitin and the protective effect mediated by effective antidotes. J Mol Graph Model 51:120–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Gelissen IC, Harris M, Rye KA, Quinn C, Brown AJ, Kockx M, Cartland S, Packianathan M, Kritharides L, Jessup W (2006) ABCA1 and ABCG1 synergize to mediate cholesterol export to apoA-I. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:534–540 PubMed: 16357317CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Goitre L, Pergolizzi B, Ferro E, Trabalzini L, Retta SF (2012) Molecular crosstalk between integrins and cadherins: do reactive oxygen species set the talk? J Signal Transduct 2012:807682CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gorlach A, Dimova EY, Petry A, Martinez-Ruiz A, Hernansanz-Agustin P, Rolo AP, Palmeira CM, Kietzmann T (2015) Reactive oxygen species, nutrition, hypoxia and diseases: problems solved? Redox Biol 6:372–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Gorrini C, Harris IS, Mak TW (2013) Modulation of oxidative stress as an anticancer strategy. Nat Rev Drug Discov 12:931–947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Green DR, Kroemer G (2004) The pathophysiology of mitochondrial cell death. Science 305:626–629CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gringhuis SI, Leow A, Papendrecht-van der Voort EA, Remans PH, Breedveld FC, Verweij CL (2000) Displacement of linker for activation of T cells from the plasma membrane due to redox balance alterations results in hyporesponsiveness of synovial fluid T lymphocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Immunol. 164:2170–2179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Guzik TJ, West NE, Pillai R, Taggart DP, Channon KM (2002) Nitric oxide modulates superoxide release and peroxynitrite formation in human blood vessels. Hypertension 39:1088–1094CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Ha M-K, Song YH, Jeong S-J et al (2011) Emodin inhibits proinflammatory responses and inactivates histone deacetylase 1 in hypoxic rheumatoid synoviocytes. Biol Pharm Bull 34:1432–1437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hager H (1974) Problems in the treatment of ocular circulatory disturbances (author’s transl). Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 165:127–136Google Scholar
  59. Hagfors L, Leanderson P, Sköldstam L, Andersson J, Johansson G (2003) Antioxidant intake, plasma antioxidants and oxidative stress in a randomized, controlled, parallel, Mediterranean dietary intervention study on patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Nutr J 2:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Halliwell B (1991) Reactive oxygen species in living systems: source, biochemistry, and role in human disease. Am J Med 91:S14–S22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Halliwell B (2008) Are polyphenols antioxidants or pro-oxidants? What do we learn from cell culture and in vivo studies? Arch Biochem Biophys 476:107–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JM (2015a) Free radicals in biology and medicine. Oxford University Press, USACrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC (2015b) Free radicals in biology and medicine. OUP, OxfordCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hayes JD, Dinkova-Kostova AT (2014) The Nrf2 regulatory network provides an interface between redox and intermediary metabolism. Trends Biochem Sci 39:199–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hirano K, Chen WS, Chueng AL, Dunne AA, Seredenina T, Filippova A, Ramachandran S, Bridges A, Chaudry L, Pettman G, Allan C, Duncan S, Lee KC, Lim J, Ma MT, Ong AB, Ye NY, Nasir S, Mulyanidewi S, Aw CC, Oon PP, Liao S, Li D, Johns DG, Miller ND, Davies CH, Browne ER, Matsuoka Y, Chen DW, Jaquet V, Rutter AR (2015) Discovery of GSK2795039, a novel small molecule NADPH oxidase 2 inhibitor. Antioxid Redox Signal 23:358–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Holley AK, Miao L, St Clair DK, St Clair WH (2014) Redox-modulated phenomena and radiation therapy: the central role of superoxide dismutases. Antioxid Redox Signal 20:1567–1589CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Hubsch AP, Casas AT, Doran JE (1995) Protective effects of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein in rabbit gram-negative bacteremia models. J Lab Clin Med 126:548–558 PubMed: 7490514Google Scholar
  68. Hwang J-K, Noh E-M, Moon S-J et al (2013) Emodin suppresses inflammatory responses and joint destruction in collagen-induced arthritic mice. Rheumatology 52:1583–1591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Iranzo O (2011) Manganese complexes displaying superoxide dismutase activity: a balance between different factors. Bioorg Chem 39:73–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Jaswal S, Mehta HC, Sood AK, Kaur J (2003) Antioxidant status in rheumatoid arthritis and role of antioxidant therapy. Clin Chim Acta 338:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Kalpakcioglu B, Şenel K (2008) The interrelation of glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glucose-6-phosphate in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis. Clin Rheumatol 27:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kalpravidh RW, Wichit A, Siritanaratkul N, Fucharoen S (2005) Effect of coenzyme Q10 as an antioxidant in beta-thalassemia/Hb E patients. BioFactors 25:225–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Kalpravidh RW, Siritanaratkul N, Insain P, Charoensakdi R, Panichkul N, Hatairaktham S, Srichairatanakool S, Phisalaphong C, Rachmilewitz E, Fucharoen S (2010) Improvement in oxidative stress and antioxidant parameters in betathalassemia/Hb E patients treated with curcuminoids. Clin Biochem 43:424–429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Kalyanaraman B, Dranka BP, Hardy M, Michalski R, Zielonka J (1840) HPLC-based monitoring of products formed from hydroethidine-based fluorogenic probes—the ultimate approach for intra- and extracellular superoxide detection. Biochim Biophys Acta 2014:739–744Google Scholar
  75. Kennedy MA, Barrera GC, Nakamura K, Baldan A, Tarr P, Fishbein MC, Frank J, Francone OL, Edwards PA (2005) ABCG1 has a critical role in mediating cholesterol efflux to HDL and preventing cellular lipid accumulation. Cell Metab 1:121–131 PubMed: 16054053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Khojah HM, Ahmed S, Abdel-Rahman MS, Hamza AB (2016) Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as potential biomarkers for disease activity and the role of antioxidants. Free Radic Biol Med 97:285–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Kloesch B, Becker T, Dietersdorfer E, Kiener H, Steiner G (2013) Anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects of the polyphenol curcumin on human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Int Immunopharmacol 15:400–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Kobayashi A, Takanezawa Y, Hirata T, Shimizu Y, Misasa K, Kioka N, Arai H, Ueda K, Matsuo M (2006) Efflux of sphingomyelin, cholesterol, and phosphatidylcholine by ABCG1. J Lipid Res 47:1791–1802 PubMed: 16702602CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Konzack A, Jakupovic M, Kubaichuk K, Gorlach A, Dombrowski F, Miinalainen I, Sormunen R, Kietzmann T (2015) Mitochondrial dysfunction due to lack of manganese superoxide dismutase promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. Antioxid Redox Signal 23:1059–1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Koseki M, Hirano K, Masuda D, Ikegami C, Tanaka M, Ota A, Sandoval JC, Nakagawa-Toyama Y, Sato SB, Kobayashi T, Shimada Y, Ohno-Iwashita Y, Matsuura F, Shimomura I, Yamashita S (2007) Increased lipid rafts and accelerated lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion in Abca1-deficient macrophages. J Lipid Res 48:299–306 PubMed: 17079792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Kroemer G, Reed JC (2000) Mitochondrial control of cell death. Nat Med 6:513–519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Landry YD, Denis M, Nandi S, Bell S, Vaughan AM, Zha X (2006) ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 expression disrupts raft membrane microdomains through its ATPase-related functions. J Biol Chem 281:36091–36101 PubMed: 16984907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Laurent A, Nicco C, Chereau C, Goulvestre C, Alexandre J, Alves A, Levy E, Goldwasser F, Panis Y, Soubrane O, Weill B, Batteux F (2005) controlling tumor growth by modulating endogenous production of reactive oxygen species. Cancer Res 65:948–956Google Scholar
  84. Lee EY, Lee C-K, Lee K-U et al (2007) Alpha-lipoic acid suppresses the development of collagen-induced arthritis and protects against bone destruction in mice. Rheumatol Int 27:225–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Lee E-G, Lee S-I, Chae H-J, Park SJ, Lee YC, Yoo W-H (2011) Adrenomedullin inhibits IL-1β-induced rheumatoid synovial fibroblast proliferation and MMPs, COX-2 and PGE2 production. Inflammation 34:335–343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Lee W-S, Lim J-H, Sung M-S, Lee E-G, Oh Y-J, Yoo W-H (2014) Ethyl acetate fraction from Angelica sinensis inhibits IL-1β-induced rheumatoid synovial fibroblast proliferation and COX-2, PGE2, and MMPs production. Biol Res 47:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Levine DM, Parker TS, Donnelly TM, Walsh A, Rubin AL (1993) In vivo protection against endotoxin by plasma high density lipoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:12040–12044 PubMed: 8265667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Li J, Li J, Yue Y et al (2014) Genistein suppresses tumor necrosis factor α-induced inflammation via modulating reactive oxygen species/Akt/nuclear factor κB and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signal pathways in human synoviocyte MH7A cells. Drug Des Dev Ther 8:315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Liu CK, Lyass A, Larson MG, Massaro JM, Wang N, D’Agostino RB Sr, Benjamin EJ, Murabito JM (2016) Biomarkers of oxidative stress are associated with frailty: the Framingham offspring study. Age 38:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Lu R, Arakawa R, Ito-Osumi C, Iwamoto N, Yokoyama S (2008) ApoA-I facilitates ABCA1 recycle/accumulation to cell surface by inhibiting its intracellular degradation and increases HDL generation. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:1820–1824 PubMed: 18617649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Lu MC, Ji JA, Jiang ZY, You QD (2016) The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE pathway as a potential preventive and therapeutic target: an update. Med Res Rev 36:924–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Maghzal GJ, Krause KH, Stocker R, Jaquet V (2012) Detection of reactive oxygen species derived from the family of NOX NADPH oxidases. Free Radic Biol Med 53:1903–1918CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Mahajan A, Tandon VR (2004) Antioxidants and rheumatoid arthritis. J Indian Rheumatol Assoc 12:139–142Google Scholar
  94. Marcinkiewicz J, Biedron R, Maresz K, Kwasny-Krochin B, Bobek M, Kontny E, Maslinski W, Chain B (2004) Oxidative modification of type II collagen differentially affects its arthritogenic and tolerogenic capacity in experimental arthritis. Arch Immunol Ther Exp 52(4):284–291Google Scholar
  95. Mateen S, Moin S, Khan AQ, Zafar A, Fatima N (2016) Increased reactive oxygen species formation and oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis. PLoS ONE 11:e0152925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. McBean GJ (2012) The transsulfuration pathway: a source of cysteine for glutathione in astrocytes. Amino Acids 42:199–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Milkovic L, Siems W, Siems R, Zarkovic N (2014) Oxidative stress and antioxidants in carcinogenesis and integrative therapy of cancer. Curr Pharm Des 20:6529–6542CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Mittal M, Siddiqui MR, Tran K, Reddy SP, Malik AB (2014) Reactive oxygen species in inflammation and tissue injury. Antioxid Redox Signal 20:1126–1167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Morgan B, Van Laer K, Owusu TN, Ezerina D, Pastor-Flores D, Amponsah PS, Tursch A, Dick TP (2016) Real-time monitoring of basal H2O2 levels with peroxiredoxin-based probes. Nat Chem Biol 12:437–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Morinobu A, Biao W, Tanaka S et al (2008) (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses osteoclast differentiation and ameliorates experimental arthritis in mice. Arthritis Rheum 58:2012–2018CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Moudry R, Spycher MO, Doran JE (1997) Reconstituted high density lipoprotein modulates adherence of polymorphonuclear leukocytes to human endothelial cells. Shock 7:175–181 PubMed: 9068082CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Murphy AJ, Woollard KJ, Hoang A, Mukhamedova N, Stirzaker RA, McCormick SP, Remaley AT, Sviridov D, Chin-Dusting J (2008) High-density lipoprotein reduces the human monocyte inflammatory response. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:2071–2077 PubMed: 18617650CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Muscoli C, Cuzzocrea S, Riley DP, Zweier JL, Thiemermann C, Wang ZQ, Salvemini D (2003) On the selectivity of superoxide dismutase mimetics and its importance in pharmacological studies. Br J Pharmacol 140:445–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nandi S, Ma L, Denis M, Karwatsky J, Li Z, Jiang XC, Zha X (2009) ABCA1-mediated cholesterol efflux generates microparticles in addition to HDL through processes governed by membrane rigidity. J Lipid Res 50:456–466 PubMed: 18941142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Neufeld EB, Remaley AT, Demosky SJ, Stonik JA, Cooney AM, Comly M, Dwyer NK, Zhang M, Blanchette-Mackie J, Santamarina-Fojo S, Brewer HB Jr (2001) Cellular localization and trafficking of the human ABCA1 transporter. J Biol Chem 276:27584–27590 PubMed: 11349133CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Oram JF (2008) The ins and outs of ABCA. J Lipid Res 49:1150–1151 PubMed: 18375914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Oram JF, Lawn RM, Garvin MR, Wade DP (2000) ABCA1 is the cAMP-inducible apolipoprotein receptor that mediates cholesterol secretion from macrophages. J Biol Chem 275:34508–34511 PubMed: 10918070CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Ounjaijean S, Thephinlap C, Khansuwan U, Phisalapong C, Fucharoen S, Porter JB, Srichairatanakool S (2008) Effect of green tea on iron status and oxidative stress in iron-loaded rats. Med Chem 4:365–370CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Out R, Hoekstra M, Hildebrand RB, Kruit JK, Meurs I, Li Z, Kuipers F, Van Berkel TJ, Van Eck M (2006) Macrophage ABCG1 deletion disrupts lipid homeostasis in alveolar macrophages and moderately influences atherosclerotic lesion development in LDL receptor-deficient mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2295–2300 PubMed: 16857950CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Out R, Hoekstra M, Meurs I, de Vos P, Kuiper J, Van Eck M, Van Berkel TJ (2007) Total body ABCG1 expression protects against early atherosclerotic lesion development in mice. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:594–599 PubMed: 17204665CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Out R, Hoekstra M, Habets K, Meurs I, de Waard V, Hildebrand RB, Wang Y, Chimini G, Kuiper J, Van Berkel TJ, Van Eck M (2008a) Combined deletion of macrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1 leads to massive lipid accumulation in tissue macrophages and distinct atherosclerosis at relatively low plasma cholesterol levels. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 28:258–264 PubMed: 18006857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Out R, Jessup W, Le Goff W, Hoekstra M, Gelissen IC, Zhao Y, Kritharides L, Chimini G, Kuiper J, Chapman MJ, Huby T, Van Berkel TJ, Van Eck M (2008b) Coexistence of foam cells and hypocholesterolemia in mice lacking the ABC transporters A1 and G1. Circ Res 102:113–120 PubMed: 17967783CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Ozdemir ZC, Koc A, Aycicek A, Kocyigit A (2014) N-Acetylcysteine supplementation reduces oxidative stress and DNA damage in children with beta-thalassemia. Hemoglobin 38:359–364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Pajkrt D, Doran JE, Koster F, Lerch PG, Arnet B, van der Poll T, ten Cate JW, van Deventer SJ (1996) Antiinflammatory effects of reconstituted high-density lipoprotein during human endotoxemia. J Exp Med 184:1601–1608 PubMed: 8920850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Pani G, Galeotti T, Chiarugi P (2010) Metastasis: cancer cell’s escape from oxidative stress. Cancer Metastasis Rev 29:351–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Paredes S, Girona J, Hurt-Camejo E et al (2002) Antioxidant vitamins and lipid peroxidation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: association with inflammatorymarkers. J Rheumatol 29:2271–2277Google Scholar
  117. Park C, Moon D-O, Choi I-W et al (2007) Curcumin induces apoptosis and inhibits prostaglandin E(2) production in synovial fibroblasts of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Mol Med 20:365–372Google Scholar
  118. Parker TS, Levine DM, Chang JC, Laxer J, Coffin CC, Rubin AL (1995) Reconstituted high-density lipoprotein neutralizes gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides in human whole blood. Infect Immun 63:253–258 PubMed: 7528733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Pattison DJ, Winyard PG (2008) Dietary antioxidants in inflammatory arthritis: do they have any role in etiology or therapy? Nat Clin Pract Rheumatol 4(11):590–596CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Pfeifer WP, Degasperi GR, Almeida MT, Vercesi AE, Costa FF, Saad ST (2008) Vitamin E supplementation reduces oxidative stress in beta thalassaemia intermedia. Acta Haematol 120:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Pliskova M, Vondracek J, Kren V, Gazak R, Sedmera P, Walterova D, Psotova J, Simanek V, Machala M (2005) Effects of silymarin flavonolignans and synthetic silybin derivatives on estrogen and aryl hydrocarbon receptor activation. Toxicology 215:80–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Quezado ZM, Natanson C, Banks SM, Alling DW, Koev CA, Danner RL, Elin RJ, Hosseini JMQ, Parker TS, Levine DM et al (1995) Therapeutic trial of reconstituted human high-density lipoprotein in a canine model of gram-negative septic shock. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 272:604–611 PubMed: 7853173Google Scholar
  123. Rader DJ (2007) Mechanisms of disease: HDL metabolism as a target for novel therapies. Nat Clin Pract Cardiovasc Med 4:102–109 [PubMed: 17245404]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Ramakrishna V, Jailkhani R (2007) Evaluation of oxidative stress in Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus (IDDM) patients. Diagn Pathol 2:1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Ranalletta M, Wang N, Han S, Yvan-Charvet L, Welch C, Tall AR (2006) Decreased atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mice transplanted with Abcg1−/− bone marrow. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 26:2308–2315 PubMed: 16917103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Rushmore TH, Morton MR, Pickett CB (1991) The antioxidant responsive element. Activation by oxidative stress and identification of the DNA consensus sequence required for functional activity. J Biol Chem 266:11632–11639Google Scholar
  127. Ryan BJ, Nissim A, Winyard PG (2014) Oxidative post-translational modifications and their involvement in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. Redox Biol 2:715–724CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Sadava D, Kane SE (2013) Silibinin reverses drug resistance in human small-cell lung carcinoma cells. Cancer Lett 339:102–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Sankaranarayanan S, Oram JF, Asztalos BF, Vaughan AM, Lund-Katz S, Adorni MP, Phillips MC, Rothblat GH (2009) Effects of acceptor composition and mechanism of ABCG1-mediated cellular free cholesterol efflux. J Lipid Res 50:275–284 PubMed: 18827283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Sano O, Kobayashi A, Nagao K, Kumagai K, Kioka N, Hanada K, Ueda K, Matsuo M (2007) Sphingomyelin-dependence of cholesterol efflux mediated by ABCG1. J Lipid Res 48:2377–2384 PubMed: 17761632CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Sarban S, Kocyigit A, Yazar M, Isikan UE (2005) Plasma total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Clin Biochem 38:981–986CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Schafer FQ, Buettner GR (2001) Redox environment of the cell as viewed through the redox state of the glutathione disulfide/glutathione couple. Free Radic Biol Med 30:1191–1212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Senkiv J, Finiuk N, Kaminskyy D, Havrylyuk D, Wojtyra M, Kril I, Gzella A, Stoika R, Lesyk R (2016) 5-Ene-4-thiazolidinones induce apoptosis in mammalian leukemia cells. Eur J Med Chem 117:33–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Seredenina T, Nayernia Z, Sorce S, Maghzal GJ, Filippova A, Ling SC, Basset O, Plastre O, Daali Y, Rushing EJ, Giordana MT, Cleveland DW, Aguzzi A, Stocker R, Krause KH, Jaquet V (2016) Evaluation of NADPH oxidases as drug targets in a mouse model of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Free Radic Biol Med 97:95–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Sies H (1991) Role of reactive oxygen species in biological processes. Klin Wochenschr 69:965–968CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Small DM (2003) Role of ABC transporters in secretion of cholesterol from liver into bile. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4–6 PubMed: 12509503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stepanic V, Gasparovic AC, Troselj KG, Amic D, Zarkovic N (2015) Selected attributes of polyphenols in targeting oxidative stress in cancer. Curr Top Med Chem 15:496–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Sun Y, Ishibashi M, Seimon T, Lee M, Sharma SM, Fitzgerald KA, Samokhin AO, Wang Y, Sayers S, Aikawa M, Jerome WG, Ostrowski MC, Bromme D, Libby P, Tabas IA, Welch CL, Tall AR (2009) Free cholesterol accumulation in macrophage membranes activates Toll-like receptors and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces cathepsin K. Circ Res 104:455–465 PubMed: 19122179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Sun Q-w, Jiang S-M, Yang K, Zheng J-M, Zhang L, Xu W-D (2012) Apigenin enhances the cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Mol Biol Rep 39:5529–5535CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Sung M-S, Lee E-G, Jeon H-S et al (2012) Quercetin inhibits IL-1β-induced proliferation and production of MMPs, COX-2, and PGE2 by rheumatoid synovial fibroblast. Inflammation 35:1585–1594CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Surai PF (2015) Silymarin as a natural antioxidant: an overview of the current evidence and perspectives. Antioxidants 4:204–247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tabas I (2005) Consequences and therapeutic implications of macrophage apoptosis in atherosclerosis: the importance of lesion stage and phagocytic efficiency. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 25:2255–2264 [PubMed: 16141399]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Takahashi Y, Smith JD (1999) Cholesterol efflux to apolipoprotein AI involves endocytosis and resecretion in a calcium-dependent pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:11358–11363 PubMed: 10500181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Takeda K, Akira S (2005) Toll-like receptors in innate immunity. Int Immunol 17:1–14 PubMed: 15585605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Talib J, Maghzal GJ, Cheng D, Stocker R (2016) Detailed protocol to assess in vivo and ex vivo myeloperoxidase activity in mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease using hydroethidine. Free Radic Biol Med 97:124–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Tall AR (2008) Cholesterol efflux pathways and other potential mechanisms involved in the athero protective effect of high-density lipoproteins. J Intern Med 263:256–273 [PubMed: 18271871]CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tall AR, Yvan-Charvet L, Terasaka N, Pagler T, Wang N (2008) HDL, ABC transporters, and cholesterol efflux: implications for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Cell Metab 7:365–375 PubMed: 18460328CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Tang L, Gao J, Chen X, Xie X (2006) Inhibitory effect of resveratrol on the proliferation of synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis and its mechanism in vitro. Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban 31:528–533Google Scholar
  149. Taysi S, Polat F, Gul M, Sari R, Bakan E (2002) Lipid peroxidation, some extracellular antioxidants, and antioxidant enzymes in serum of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Rheumatol Int 21:200–204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Terasaka N, Wang N, Yvan-Charvet L, Tall AR (2007) High-density lipoprotein protects macrophages from oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced apoptosis by promoting efflux of 7-ketocholesterol via ABCG1. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:15093–15098 PubMed: 17846428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tesoriere L, D’Arpa D, Butera D, Allegra M, Renda D, Maggio A, Bongiorno A, Livrea MA (2001) Oral supplements of vitamin E improve measures of oxidative stress in plasma and reduce oxidative damage to LDL and erythrocytes in betathalassemia intermedia patients. Free Radic Res 34:529–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Tian J, J-w C, Gao J-S, Li L, Xie X (2013) Resveratrol inhibits TNF-α-induced IL-1β, MMP-3 production in human rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes via modulation of PI3kinase/Akt pathway. Rheumatol Int 33:1829–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Tochhawng L, Deng S, Pervaiz S, Yap CT (2013) Redox regulation of cancer cell migration and invasion. Mitochondrion 13:246–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Tsujimoto Y, Shimizu S (2007) Role of the mitochondrial membrane permeability transition in cell death. Apoptosis 12:835–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. van Eck M, Bos IS, Kaminski WE, Orso E, Rothe G, Twisk J, Bottcher A, Van Amersfoort ES, Christiansen-Weber TA, Fung-Leung WP, Van Berkel TJ, Schmitz G (2002) Leukocyte ABCA1 controls susceptibility to atherosclerosis and macrophage recruitment into tissues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 99:6298–6303 PubMed: 11972062CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Vaughan AM, Oram JF (2003) ABCA1 redistributes membrane cholesterol independent of apolipoprotein interactions. J Lipid Res 44:1373–1380 PubMed: 12700343CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Vaughan AM, Oram JF (2006) ABCA1 and ABCG1 or ABCG4 act sequentially to remove cellular cholesterol and generate cholesterol-rich HDL. J Lipid Res 47:2433–2443 PubMed: 16902247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Vedhachalam C, Duong PT, Nickel M, Nguyen D, Dhanasekaran P, Saito H, Rothblat GH, Lund-Katz S, Phillips MC (2007) Mechanism of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1-mediated cellular lipid efflux to apolipoprotein A-I and formation of high-density lipoprotein particles. J Biol Chem 282:25123–25130 PubMed: 17604270CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Verdrengh M, Jonsson I, Holmdahl R, Tarkowski A (2003) Genistein as an anti-inflammatory agent. Inflamm Res 52:341–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Veselinovic M, Barudzic N, Vuletic M et al (2014) Oxidative stress in rheumatoid arthritis patients: relationship to diseases activity. Mol Cell Biochem 391:225–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Vijayakumar D, Suresh K, Manoharan S (2006) Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in blood of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Indian J Clin Biochem 21:105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Voskou S, Aslan M, Fanis P, Phylactides M, Kleanthous M (2015) Oxidative stress in beta-thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. Redox Biol 6:226–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wang N, Silver DL, Costet P, Tall AR (2000) Specific binding of ApoA-I, enhanced cholesterol efflux, and altered plasma membrane morphology in cells expressing ABC1. J Biol Chem 275:33053–33058 PubMed: 10918065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wang N, Chen W, Linsel-Nitschke P, Martinez LO, Agerholm-Larsen B, Silver DL, Tall AR (2003) A PEST sequence in ABCA1 regulates degradation by calpain protease and stabilization of ABCA1 by apoAI. J Clin Invest 111:99–107 PubMed: 12511593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wang N, Lan D, Chen W, Matsuura F, Tall AR (2004) ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cellular cholesterol efflux to high-density lipoproteins. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101:9774–9779 PubMed: 15210959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wang X, Collins HL, Ranalletta M, Fuki IV, Billheimer JT, Rothblat GH, Tall AR, Rader DJ (2007) Macrophage ABCA1 and ABCG1, but not SR-BI, promote macrophage reverse cholesterol transport in vivo. J Clin Invest 117:2216–2224 PubMed: 17657311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wang N, Yvan-Charvet L, Lutjohann D, Mulder M, Vanmierlo T, Kim TW, Tall AR (2008a) ATP-binding cassette transporters G1 and G4 mediate cholesterol and desmosterol efflux to HDL and regulate sterol accumulation in the brain. FASEB J 22:1073–1082 PubMed: 18039927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wang J, Zhang Q, Jin S, He D, Zhao S, Liu S (2008b) Genistein modulate immune responses in collagen-induced rheumatoid arthritis model. Maturitas 59:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Wang J, Wei T, Gao J, He H, Chang X, Yan T (2015) Effects of Naringenin on inflammation in complete Freund’s adjuvant-induced arthritis by regulating Bax/Bcl-2 balance. Inflammation 38:245–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Westman E, Lundberg K, Erlandsson Harris H (2006) Arthritogenicity of collagen type II is increased by chlorination. Clin Exp Immunol 145(2):339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Wilhelm AJ, Zabalawi M, Grayson JM, Weant AE, Major AS, Owen J, Bharadwaj M, Walzem R, Chan L, Oka K, Thomas MJ, Sorci-Thomas MG (2009) Apolipoprotein A-I and its role in lymphocyte cholesterol homeostasis and autoimmunity. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 29:843–849 PubMed: 19286630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Wojcik AJ, Skaflen MD, Srinivasan S, Hedrick CC (2008) A critical role for ABCG1 in macrophage inflammation and lung homeostasis. J Immunol 180:4273–4282 PubMed: 18322240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Wondrak GT (2009) Redox-directed cancer therapeutics: molecular mechanisms and opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal 11:3013–3069CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Wu WS (2006) The signaling mechanism of ROS in tumor progression. Cancer Metastas Rev 25:695–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Xuzhu G, Komai-Koma M, Leung BP et al (2012) Resveratrol modulates murine collagen-induced arthritis by inhibiting Th17 and B-cell function. Ann Rheum Dis 71:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Yanpanitch OU, Hatairaktham S, Charoensakdi R, Panichkul N, Fucharoen S, Srichairatanakool S, Siritanaratkul N, Kalpravidh RW (2015) Treatment of betathalassemia/hemoglobin E with antioxidant cocktails results in decreased oxidative stress, increased hemoglobin concentration, and improvement of the hypercoagulable state. Oxid Med Cell Longev 2015:537954CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Yelisyeyeva OP, Semen KO, Ostrovska GV, Kaminskyy DV, Sirota TV, Zarkovic N, Mazur D, Lutsyk OD, Rybalchenko K, Bast A (2014) The effect of Amaranth oil on monolayers of artificial lipids and hepatocyte plasma membranes with adrenalin-induced stress. Food Chem 147:152–159CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Yoon HY, Lee EG, Lee H et al (2013a) Kaempferol inhibits IL-1β-induced proliferation of rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts and the production of COX-2, PGE2 and MMPs. Int J Mol Med 32:971–977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Yoon C-H, Chung S-J, Lee S-W, Park Y-B, Lee S-K, Park M-C (2013b) Gallic acid, a natural polyphenolic acid, induces apoptosis and inhibits proinflammatory gene expressions in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Joint Bone Spine 80:274–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Yun H-J, Yoo W-H, Han M-K, Lee Y-R, Kim J-S, Lee S-I (2008) Epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses TNF-α-induced production of MMP-1 and-3 in rheumatoid arthritis synovial fibroblasts. Rheumatol Int 29:23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Yvan-Charvet L, Ranalletta M, Wang N, Han S, Terasaka N, Li R, Welch C, Tall AR (2007a) Combined deficiency of ABCA1 and ABCG1 promotes foam cell accumulation and accelerates atherosclerosis in mice. J Clin Invest 117:3900–3908 PubMed: 17992262Google Scholar
  182. Yvan-Charvet L, Matsuura F, Wang N, Bamberger MJ, Nguyen T, Rinninger F, Jiang XC, Shear CL, Tall AR (2007b) Inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein by torcetrapib modestly increases macrophage cholesterol efflux to HDL. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 27:1132–1138 PubMed: 17322101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Yvan-Charvet L, Welch C, Pagler TA, Ranalletta M, Lamkanfi M, Han S, Ishibashi M, Li R, Wang N, Tall AR (2008) Increased inflammatory gene expression in ABC transporter-deficient macrophages: free cholesterol accumulation, increased signaling via toll-like receptors, and neutrophil infiltration of atherosclerotic lesions. Circulation 118:1837–1847 PubMed: 18852364CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Zhang XF, Tan X, Zeng G, Misse A, Singh S, Kim Y, Klaunig JE, Monga SP (2010) Conditional beta-catenin loss in mice promotes chemical hepatocarcinogenesis: role of oxidative stress and platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha/phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling. Hepatology 52:954–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Zhang Y, Dong J, He P et al (2012) Genistein inhibit cytokines or growth factor-induced proliferation and transformation phenotype in fibroblast-like synoviocytes of rheumatoid arthritis. Inflammation 35:377–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Zheng N, Zhang P, Huang H, Liu W, Hayashi T, Zang L, Zhang Y, Liu L, Xia M, Tashiro S, Onodera S, Ikejima T (2015) ERalpha down-regulation plays a key role in silibinin-induced autophagy and apoptosis in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. J Pharmacol Sci 128:97–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Zhu X, Lee JY, Timmins JM, Brown JM, Boudyguina E, Mulya A, Gebre AK, Willingham MC, Hiltbold EM, Mishra N, Maeda N, Parks JS (2008) Increased cellular free cholesterol in macrophage-specific Abca1 knock-out mice enhances pro-inflammatory response of macrophages. J Biol Chem 283:22930–22941 PubMed: 18552351CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Zhu X, Zeng K, Qiu Y, Yan F, Lin C (2013) Therapeutic effect of emodin on collagen-induced arthritis in mice. Inflammation 36:1253–1259CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceAl Baha UniversityBaljurashiSaudi Arabia

Personalised recommendations