Antioxidant Therapeutic Defenses Toward Redox Biology and Oxidative Stress

Part of the Nanomedicine and Nanotoxicology book series (NANOMED)


Oxidative stress that occurs either due to the overproduction of oxidants or their elimination by antioxidant defense system is weakened. An antioxidant defense system prevents oxidative damage to cell, and to ensure the host against the harmful impacts of ROS, numerous antioxidative safeguard mechanisms have progressed, whereas oxidant–antioxidant balance of an individual is mainly affected by diet regime, physical activity, and level of stress. An extensive variety of ligand–receptor associations have been shown to create intracellular ROS. ROS can enact an assortment of members of signaling pathways, for example, transcription factors, protein phosphatases, and protein kinases. Despite the fact that ROS are produced intracellularly by numerous sources, including mitochondria, the NADPH oxidases specifically have been associated with receptor-mediated signaling. There are various types of antioxidants (endogenous, exogenous, and proteins) working to cope with ROS- and free radicals’-associated stress. Different groups of antioxidants were along with their mechanisms. However, large multicentered clinical trials are needed to be conducted to prove the safety and efficacy of the polyphenols for their therapeutic use.


Enzymatic antioxidants Non-enzymatic antioxidants Oxidative stress ROS Redox Rheumatic diseases 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Physical Chemistry and Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceAl Baha UniversityBaljurashiSaudi Arabia

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