Advertisement

Summary of Findings, Policy Implications, and Future Research

  • Eric MadfisEmail author
Chapter
  • 11 Downloads

Abstract

This concluding chapter presents a discussion of the findings as a whole along with the policy and theoretical implications that may be drawn from them. It also discusses emergent areas that may help prevent school rampage killing and suggests avenues for future research.

References

  1. Active Shooter Incidents in the United States in 2016 and 2017. (2018). Federal Bureau of Investigation, United States Department of Justice. Washington, DC. Retrieved July 18, 2019, from https://www.fbi.gov/file-repository/active-shooter-incidents-us-2016-2017.pdf/view.
  2. Adams, D. M. (1998). The problem of the incomplete attempt. Social Theory and Practice, 24, 317–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Advancement Project. (2005). Education on lockdown: The schoolhouse to jailhouse track. Retrieved July 26, 2019, from https://b.3cdn.net/advancement/5351180e24cb166d02_mlbrqgxlh.pdf.
  4. Alexander, M. (2010). The new Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. New York: New Press.Google Scholar
  5. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence and the moral life of the inner city. New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  6. Arenson, K. J. (2005). The pitfalls in the law of attempt: A new perspective. The Journal of Criminal Law, 69(2), 146–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Attack on German High School Prevented, Police Say. (2007, November 18). Retrieved July 26, 2019, from http://www.cnn.com/2007/WORLD/europe/11/18/germany.school.plot/index.html.
  8. Bayles, M. D. (1982). Punishment for attempts. Social Theory and Practice, 8, 21–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Becker, L. C. (1973/1974). Criminal attempt and the theory of the law of crimes. Philosophy & Public Affairs, 3, 262–294.Google Scholar
  10. Beckett, K., Beach, L., Knaphus, E., & Reosti, A. (2018). US criminal justice policy and practice in the twenty-first century: Toward the end of mass incarceration? Law and Policy, 40(4), 321–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair, J. P., & Schweit, K. W. (2014). A study of active shooter incidents, 2000–2013. Washington, DC: Texas State University and Federal Bureau of Investigation, U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  12. Böckler, N., Heitmeyer, W., Sitzer, P., & Seeger, T. (Eds.). (2013). School shootings: International research, case studies, and concepts for prevention. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  13. Borum, R., Cornell, D., Modzeleski, W., & Jimerson, S. (2010). What can be done about school shootings?: A review of the evidence. Educational Researcher, 39(1), 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carter, H. (2009, September 2). Manchester teenagers planned Columbine-style attack, jury told. Retrieved July 17, 2019, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2009/sep/02/manchester-teenagers-columbine-style-attack.
  15. Christopher, R. (2004). Does attempted murder deserve greater punishment than murder? Moral luck and the duty to prevent harm. Notre Dame Journal of Law, Ethics, and Public Policy, 18(2), 419–435.Google Scholar
  16. Clarke, R. V. (1995). Situational crime prevention. Crime and Justice, 19, 91–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cornell, D. G. (2013). The Virginia student threat assessment guidelines: An empirically supported violence prevention strategy. In N. Böckler, W. Heitmeyer, P. Sitzer, & T. Seeger (Eds.), School shootings: International research, case studies, and concepts for prevention (pp. 379–400). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cranley, E. (2019, August 5). How to stop shootings in America: 10 strategies proposed to stop gun violence, and how likely they are to work. Retrieved January 28, 2020, from https://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-stop-gun-school-shooting-america-2018-11.
  19. Daniels, J. A. (2019). A preliminary report on the Police Foundations averted school violence database. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
  20. Davis, M. (1986). Why attempts deserve less punishment than complete crimes. Law and Philosophy, 5(1), 1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Donahue, J. J., Aneja, A., & Weber, K. D. (2018). Right-to-carry laws and violent crime: A comprehensive assessment using panel data and a state-level synthetic control analysis. Journal of Empirical Legal Studies, 16(2), 198–247.Google Scholar
  22. Don’t Name Them. (2019). Retrieved July 17, 2019, from https://www.facebook.com/pg/DontNameThem/about/.
  23. Drane, K. (2019, June 1). Every incident of mishandled guns in schools. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://giffords.org/2019/06/every-incident-of-mishandled-guns-in-schools/.
  24. Duff, A. (1997). Criminal attempts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Duwe, G., Kovandzic, T., & Moody, C. (2002). The impact of right-to-carry concealed firearms laws on mass public shootings. Homicide Studies, 6(4), 271–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Enker, A. N. (1977). Mens rea and criminal attempt. Law & Social Inquiry, 2(4), 845–879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Feinberg, J. (1995). Equal punishment for failed attempts: Some bad but instructive arguments against it. Arizona Law Review, 37, 117–133.Google Scholar
  28. Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  29. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge. Brighton, UK: Harvester.Google Scholar
  30. Foucault, M. (1991). Governmentality. In G. Burchell, C. Gordon, & P. Miller (Eds.), The Foucault effect: Studies in governmentality (pp. 87–104). London, UK: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  31. French, D. (2018, March 16). The NRA makes a wise, principled decision to support gun-violence restraining orders. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www.nationalreview.com/2018/03/nra-gun-violence-restraining-order-support-good-move/.
  32. Giffords Law Center. (2018). Extreme risk protection orders. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://lawcenter.giffords.org/gun-laws/policy-areas/who-can-have-a-gun/extreme-risk-protection-orders/.
  33. Gould, M. S., & Olivares, M. (2017). Mass shootings and murder-suicide: Review of empirical evidence for contagion. In S. Stack & T. Niederkrotenthaler (Eds.), Media and suicide: International perspectives on research, theory, and policy (pp. 41–66). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Harsanyi, J. C. (1980). A bargaining model for social status in informal groups and formal organizations. In J. C. Harsanyi (Ed.), Essays on ethics, social behavior, and scientific explanation: Theory and decision library (Vol. 12, pp. 204–226). Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Heitzeg, N. A. (2016). The School-to-Prison Pipeline: Education, Discipline, and Racialized Double Standards. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  36. Helfgott, J. B. (2015). Criminal behavior and the copycat effect: Literature review and theoretical framework for empirical investigation. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 22, 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Horsley, S. (2018, March 12). Gun advocates are not happy about Trump advocating for risk protection orders. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www.npr.org/2018/03/12/592965390/gun-advocates-are-not-happy-about-trump-advocating-for-risk-protection-orders.
  38. Huff-Corzine, L., McCutcheon, J. C., Corzine, J., Jarvis, J. P., Tetzlaff-Bemiller, M., Weller, M., & Landon, M. (2014). Shooting for accuracy: Comparing data sources on mass murder. Homicide Studies, 18, 105–124.Google Scholar
  39. Kim, C., Losen, D., & Hewitt, D. (2010). The school-to-prison pipeline: Structuring legal reform. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Kimmel, M. S., & Mahler, M. (2003). Adolescent masculinity, homophobia, and violence. American Behavioral Scientist, 46, 1439–1458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. King, S., Rusoja, A., & Peguero, A. (2018). The school-to-prison pipeline. In J. Deakin, E. Taylor, & A. Kupchik (Eds.), The Palgrave international handbook of school discipline, surveillance, and social control (pp. 269–290). New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kissner, J. (2016). Are active shootings temporally contagious? An empirical assessment. Journal of Police and Criminal Psychology, 31, 48–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Langman, P. (2018). Different types of role model influence and fame seeking among mass killers and copycat offenders. American Behavioral Scientist, 62(2), 210–228.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Langman, P., & Straub, F. (2019). A comparison of averted and completed school attacks from the Police Foundation’s averted school violence database. Washington, DC: Office of Community Oriented Policing Services.Google Scholar
  45. Lankford, A. (2016). Fame-seeking rampage shooters: Initial findings and empirical predictions. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 27(1), 122–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Lankford, A. (2018). Do the media unintentionally make mass killers into celebrities? An assessment of free advertising and earned media value. Celebrity Studies, 9(3), 340–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Lankford, A., & Madfis, E. (2018a). Media coverage of mass killers: Content, consequences, and solutions. American Behavioral Scientist, 62(2), 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Lankford, A., & Madfis, E. (2018b). Don’t name them, don’t show them, but report everything else: A pragmatic proposal for denying mass killers the attention they seek and deterring future offenders. American Behavioral Scientist, 62(2), 260–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lankford, A., Adkins, K. G., & Madfis, E. (2019). Are the deadliest mass shootings preventable? An assessment of leakage, information reported to law enforcement, and firearms acquisition prior to attacks in the United States. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 35(3), 315–341.Google Scholar
  50. Lee, S. (2019, June 7). How the good guy with a gun became a deadly American fantasy. The Conversation. Retrieved June 8, 2019, from https://theconversation.com/how-the-good-guy-with-a-gun-became-a-deadly-american-fantasy-117367.
  51. Leitsinger, M. (2012, March 8). When rumor, the Internet and school violence fears collide. Retrieved May 4, 2012, from http://usnews.msnbc.msn.com/_news/2012/03/08/10604539-when-rumor-the-internet-and-school-violence-fears-collide?lite.
  52. Lockhart, P. R. (2019, February 6). A black security guard caught a shooting suspect—Only to be shot by police minutes later. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://www.vox.com/identities/2018/11/12/18088874/jemel-roberson-police-shooting-illinois-ian-covey-video.
  53. Logan, C. (2002, May 2). Columbine jitters may cost a Kansas town millions. The Pitch. Retrieved July 5, 2010, from http://www.pitch.com/2002-05-02/news/tutu-careful/.
  54. Lopez, G. (2017, November 6). The Texas shooting shows why “a good guy with a gun” isn’t enough. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://www.vox.com/policy-and-politics/2017/11/6/16612014/sutherland-springs-shooting-good-guy-gun.
  55. Lopez, G. (2018, June 21). America’s love for guns, in one chart. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://www.vox.com/2018/6/21/17488024/gun-ownership-violence-shootings-us.
  56. Madfis, E. (2014). Averting school rampage: Student intervention amid a persistent code of silence. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 12(3), 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Madfis, E. (2017). In search of meaning: Are school rampage shootings random and senseless violence? The Journal of Psychology: Interdisciplinary and Applied, 151(1), 21–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Madfis, E. (2018). Insight from averted mass shootings. In J. Schildkraut (Ed.), Mass shootings in America: Understanding the debates, causes, and responses (pp. 79–84). Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger Books.Google Scholar
  59. Madfis, E., & Levin, J. (2013). School rampage in international perspective: The salience of cumulative strain theory. In N. Böckler, W. Heitmeyer, P. Sitzer, & T. Seeger (Eds.), School shootings: International research, case studies, and concepts for prevention (pp. 79–104). New York, NY: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. May, A. (2018, March 13). Guns in school: It’s not just an idea. Here’s how some states are already doing it. Retrieved June 8, 2019, from https://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation-now/2018/03/13/can-guns-schools-save-students-during-shooting-heres-what-states-say/418965002/.
  61. Meindl, J. N., & Ivy, J. W. (2017). Mass shootings: The role of the media in promoting generalized imitation. American Journal of Public Health, 107, 368–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Meindl, J. N., & Ivy, J. W. (2018). Reducing media-induced mass killings: Lessons from suicide prevention. American Behavioral Scientist, 62(2), 242–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mikkelson, D. (2015). Rumor: A school shooter in Pearl, Mississippi, was stopped from killing additional victims by an assistant principal with a gun. Retrieved June 24, 2019, from https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/full-stop/.
  64. Morris, E. W. (2010). “Snitches end up in ditches” and other cautionary tales. Journal of Contemporary Criminal Justice, 26(3), 254–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Morrison, G. (2006). Deadly force programs among larger U.S. police departments. Police Quarterly, 9(3), 331–360.Google Scholar
  66. Murray, J. L. (2017). Mass media reporting and enabling of mass shootings. Cultural Studies, Critical Methodologies, 17, 114–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Muschert, G. W. (2002). Media and massacre: The social construction of the Columbine story. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  68. Muschert, G. W. (2007). Research in school shootings. Sociology Compass, 1(1), 60–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Mythen, G. (2008). Sociology and the art of risk. Sociology Compass, 2(1), 299–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. No Notoriety. (n.d.). Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://nonotoriety.com/.
  71. Ohana, D. (2007). Desert and punishment for acts preparatory to the commission of a crime. Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, 20, 113–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Owen, T. (2018, March 10). Here’s all the states where teachers already carry guns in the classroom. Retrieved June 8, 2019, from https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/ywq8b5/teachers-armed-guns-classroom-state-laws.
  73. Owen, T. (2019, March 26). Owning a bump stock can now get you 10 years in prison. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://news.vice.com/en_us/article/3kg9bv/owning-a-bump-stock-can-now-get-you-10-years-in-prison.
  74. Pattillo, M., Weiman, D., & Western, B. (2004). Imprisoning America: The social effects of mass incarceration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation Publications.Google Scholar
  75. Perrin, P. B. (2016). Translating psychological science: Highlighting the media’s contribution to contagion in mass shootings: Comment on Kaslow (2015). American Psychologist, 71, 71–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Pollack, W. S., Modzeleski, W., & Rooney, G. (2008). Prior knowledge of potential school-based violence: Information students learn may prevent a targeted attack. Washington, DC: United States Secret Service and United States Department of Education.Google Scholar
  77. Raitanen, J., & Oksanen, A. (2018). Global online subculture surrounding school shootings. American Behavioral Scientist, 62(2), 195–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Reddy, M., Borum, R., Berglund, J., Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2001). Evaluating risk for targeted violence in schools: Comparing risk assessment, threat assessment, and other approaches. Psychology in the Schools, 38(2), 157–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rocque, M. (2012). Exploring school rampage shootings: Research, theory, and policy. The Social Science Journal, 49(3), 304–313.Google Scholar
  80. Rosenbaum, D. P., Lurigio, A. J., & Davis, R. C. (Eds.). (1998). The prevention of crime: Social and situational strategies. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  81. Rosenfeld, R., Jacobs, B. A., & Wright, R. (2003). Snitching and the code of the street. British Journal of Criminology, 43, 291–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sarteschi, C. (2016). An examination of thwarted mass homicide plots and threateners. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 30(1), 88–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Savage, C. (2018, December 18). Trump administration imposes ban on bump stocks. Retrieved June 7, 2019, from https://www.nytimes.com/2018/12/18/us/politics/trump-bump-stocks-ban.html.
  84. Seletan, W. (2011, January 11). Friendly firearms: Gabrielle Giffords and the perils of guns: How an armed hero nearly shot the wrong man. Retrieved June 24, 2019, from https://slate.com/technology/2011/01/joe-zamudio-and-the-gabrielle-giffords-shooting-how-an-armed-hero-nearly-shot-the-wrong-man.html.
  85. Shepard, S. (2018, February 28). Gun control support surges in polls. Retrieved June 26, 2019, from https://www.politico.com/story/2018/02/28/gun-control-polling-parkland-430099.
  86. Sherman, L. W., Farrington, D. P., Welsh, B. C., & MacKenzie, D. L. (Eds.). (2002). Evidence-based crime prevention. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  87. Sidhu, S. S. (2017). Name no names: The role of the media in reporting mass shootings. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 56, 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Siebel, B., & Roston, A. (2007). No gun left behind—The gun lobby’s campaign to push guns into colleges and schools. Brady Center to Prevent Gun Violence. Retrieved June 24, 2019, from https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=987861.
  89. Sommer, F., Leuschner, V., & Scheithauer, H. (2014). Bullying, romantic rejection, and conflicts with teachers: The crucial role of social dynamics in the development of school shootings—A systematic review. International Journal of Developmental Science, 8, 3–24.Google Scholar
  90. Spjut, R. J. (1987). When is an attempt to commit an impossible crime a criminal act. Arizona Law Review, 29(2), 247–279.Google Scholar
  91. Towers, S., Gomez-Lievano, A., Khan, M., Mubayi, A., & Castillo-Chavez, C. (2015). Contagion in mass killings and school shootings. PLoS One, 10(7), e0117259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Trembley, R. E., & Craig, W. M. (1995). Developmental crime prevention. Crime and Justice, 19, 151–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Vossekuil, B., Fein, R., Reddy, M., Borum, R., & Modzeleski, W. (2002). The final report and findings of the safe school initiative: Implications for the prevention of school attacks in the United States. Washington, DC: U.S. Secret Service and U.S. Department of Education.Google Scholar
  94. Wakefield, M. A., Loken, B., & Hornik, R. C. (2010). Use of mass media campaigns to change health behaviour. The Lancet, 376(9748), 1261–1271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Wald, J., & Losen, D. J. (2003). Editors’ notes. In J. Wald & D. J. Losen (Eds.), New directions for youth development: Deconstructing the school-to-prison pipeline (pp. 1–2). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  96. White-Hamon, L. S. (2000). Mass murder and attempted mass murder: An examination of the perpetrator with an empirical analysis of typologies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, California School of Professional Psychology, Fresno, CA.Google Scholar
  97. Wrangham, R., & Peterson, D. (1996). Demonic males: Apes and the origins of human violence. New York, NY: Houghton Mifflin.Google Scholar
  98. Yaffe, G. (2010). Attempts: In the philosophy of action and the criminal law. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social Work and Criminal JusticeUniversity of Washington TacomaTacomaUSA

Personalised recommendations