Integrated Gas and Power Networks

  • Alireza SoltaniNejad
  • Ramin Bahmani
  • Heidarali ShayanfarEmail author


This chapter proposes the integrated planning for the expansion and operation of the power system and the gas grid. In order to optimize energy usage and increase the efficiency, the simultaneous planning of the gas and electricity networks has been widely investigated. To this end, the use of devices and equipment connecting electricity and gas infrastructures such as Energy Hub and PtG have been considered, which have made the connection of these two infrastructures at different energy levels. The strong interdependence of these two infrastructures has encouraged researchers to consider security and economic issues simultaneously for these two infrastructures and to study them as an integrated system. There are various ways to plan expansion and operation that are discussed in detail in this chapter.


Integrated co-planning Gas and electricity networks Power-to-gas (PtG) Energy hubs Expansion planning Operation planning 




Index for energy hubs


Index for transmission line


Index of natural gas supply contract


Set of gas-fired generating units


\( \overline{F_k} \)

Maximum capacity of transmission line k


Gas compressibility factor at compressor inlet

αk, βk, γk

Gas consumption coefficients of compressor k

\( {R}_k^{\mathrm{max}} \)

Compression ratio of compressor k

\( {\pi}_i^{\mathrm{max}},{\pi}_i^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Max and min pressure at node i

\( \mathrm{W}{\mathrm{S}}_i^{\mathrm{max}},\mathrm{W}{\mathrm{S}}_i^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Max and min amount of gas supply at node i


Pipe-nodal incidence matrix


Number of candidate compressors and existing compressors


Number of coal-fired generators


Number of gas suppliers


Number of gas loads


Natural gas load at node i


Carbon emission price


Investment cost of installing pipeline i


Investment cost of installing compressor i


Investment cost of installing electricity line

ξ1, ξ2

Carbon emission coefficient of coal-fired generator and gas-fired generator, respectively


Large enough input value

\( {P}_{gk}^{\mathrm{max}},{P}_{gk}^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Max and min capacity of generator k


Gas purchase cost of supplier i

ai, bi, ci

Coefficients of the operation cost of generator i


Real power load at node k

μ1, μ2, μ3

Gas fuel rate coefficients of generator i


Gas gross heating value


Gas pipeline constant depending on diameter, length, temperature, friction, and gas composition


Coefficient of converting net present value to annualized investment cost

\( \mathrm{p}{\mathrm{f}}_g^{\mathrm{Gas}} \)

Participation factor of gas supply facilities g [p.u]

CFi, t

Capacity factor of electricity unit i during time period t [p.u]

Energy conversion factor


High heating value

\( {e}_a^{\mathrm{ptg}} \)

Efficiency of PtG facility a


Discretized storage and inflow/outflow rate used to linearize the properties of the NG storage

ρin, ρout 

Inflow and outflow rate of storage


Number of periods in the duration time

\( {L}_t^{\mathrm{E}} \)

Electricity power output within energy hub


Cost of firm natural gas contract


Startup and shutdown cost of a unit


Penalty price of electricity load shedding


Electricity load shedding


Penalty price of shed load

ρgas, gss

Price of natural gas and operation cost of gas storage s



Binary decision variable, 1 if electricity line i is installed, and 0 otherwise


Natural gas flow of pipeline


Power for compressor k


Specific heat ratio


Gas flow rate at compressor k

πi, πj

Pressures at node I and j, respectively


Amount of gas tapped by compressor k


Binary decision variable, 1 if pipeline i is installed, and 0 otherwise


Binary decision variable, 1 if compressor i is installed, and 0 otherwise


Binary decision variable, 1 if electricity line i is installed, and 0 otherwise


Natural gas injection of gas supplier i


Natural gas flow of pipeline


Gas flow rate at compressor k


Power flow on transmission line k


Electrical susceptance of transmission line k

θfr(k), θto(k)

Voltage angle at “from” and “to” buses of transmission line k


Real power supply from generator k

\( {p}_{g,t}^{\mathrm{G},\mathrm{N}} \)

Gas production of new gas supply projects g in time period t [TJ/h]

\( {p}_g^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{N}} \)

Gas supply capacity of new gas projects [TJ/year]

\( {p}_{g,t}^{\mathrm{G},\mathrm{Ex}} \)

Gas production of existing gas supply projects g in time period t [TJ/h]

\( {p}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{N}} \)

Electricity production of new unit i during time period t [MW]

\( {p}_i^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{N}} \)

Power capacity to be built for new unit i [MW]

\( {p}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{Ex}} \)

Electricity production of existing unit i during time period t [MW]

\( {p}_i^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{Ex}} \)

Power capacity of existing unit i [MW]


Gas production of PtG facility a at load block h of year t

\( {P}_{aht}^{\mathrm{bc}} \)

Base-case power consumption of PtG a at load block h of year t


NG flow rate between NG node s i, j in time t


Total available capacity

AUint, ALlnt

Binary variable which is equal to 1 if unit i/line l is available, being 0 otherwise


Grid resilience metric


Electric load loss cost function

pdi, b, t

Load curtailment


Cost of natural gas contract

\( {P}_{i,t}^0 \)

Generation of unit I at hour t

\( \mathrm{L}{\mathrm{D}}_{j,t}^0 \)

Preventive load shedding at bus at hour t

vsp, t

Production of natural gas in well sp at hour t

GCs, t, GDs, t

Storing/releasing rate of storage s at hour


  1. 1.
    H. Zhao, Q. Wu, S. Hu, H. Xu, C.N. Rasmussen, Review of energy storage system for wind power integration support. Appl. Energy 137, 545–553 (2015). ElsevierCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Odetayo, J. MacCormack, W.D. Rosehart, H. Zareipour, A real option assessment of flexibilities in the integrated planning of natural gas distribution network and distributed natural gas-fired power generations. Energy 143, 257–272 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    A. Jindal, M. Singh, N. Kumar, Consumption-aware data analytical demand response scheme for peak load reduction in smart grid. IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. 65(11), 8993–9004 (2018). CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    H. Nemati, M.A. Latify, G.R. Yousefi, Coordinated generation and transmission expansion planning for a power system under physical deliberate attacks. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 96, 208–221 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    A.G. Zamani, A. Zakariazadeh, S. Jadid, A. Kazemi, Stochastic operational scheduling of distributed energy resources in a large scale virtual power plant. Int. J. Electr. Power Energy Syst. 82, 608–620 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Wen, X. Qu, W. Li, X. Liu, X. Ye, Synergistic operation of electricity and natural gas networks via ADMM. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 9(5), 4555–4565 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Salimi, M. Adelpour, S. Vaez-ZAdeh, H. Ghasemi, Optimal planning of energy hubs in interconnected energy systems: a case study for natural gas and electricity. IET Gener. Transm. Distrib. 9(8), 695–707 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    B. Li, R. Roche, D. Paire, A. Miraoui, Optimal sizing of distributed generation in gas/electricity/heat supply networks. Energy 151, 675–688 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. Chaudry, N. Jenkins, M. Qadrdan, J. Wu, Combined gas and electricity network expansion planning. Appl. Energy 113, 1171–1187 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Y. Hu, Z. Bie, T. Ding, Y. Lin, An NSGA-II based multi-objective optimization for combined gas and electricity network expansion planning. Appl. Energy 167, 280–293 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J.B. Nunes, N. Mahmoudi, T.K. Saha, D. Chattopadhyay, A stochastic integrated planning of electricity and natural gas networks for Queensland, Australia considering high renewable penetration. Energy 153, 539–553 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    C. He, L. Wu, T. Liu, Z. Bie, Robust co-optimization planning of interdependent electricity and natural gas systems with a joint N-1 and probabilistic reliability criterion. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 33(2), 2140–2154 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    B. Odetayo, M. Kazemi, J. MacCormack, W.D. Rosehart, H. Zareipour, A.R. Seifi, A chance constrained programming approach to the integrated planning of electric power generation, natural gas network and storage. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 33(6), 6883–6893 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    T.D. Diagoupis, P.E. Andrianesis, E.N. Dialynas, A planning approach for reducing the impact of natural gas network on electricity markets. Appl. Energy 175, 189–198 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    X. Zhang, L. Che, M. Shahidehpour, A.S. Alabdulwahab, A. Abusorrah, Reliability-based optimal planning of electricity and natural gas interconnections for multiple energy hubs. IEEE Trans. Smart Grid 8(4), 1658–1667 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Zhang, Y. Hu, J. Ma, Z. Bie, A mixed-integer linear programming approach to security-constrained co-optimization expansion planning of natural gas and electricity transmission systems. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 33(6), 6368–6378 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    V. Zahedi Rad, S.A. Torabi, H. Shakouri G, Joint electricity generation and transmission expansion planning under integrated gas and power system. Energy 167, 523–537 (2019)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. Qadrdan, M. Cheng, J. Wu, N. Jenkins, Benefits of demand-side response in combined gas and electricity networks. Appl. Energy 192, 360–369 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. Odetayo, J. MacCormack, W.D. Rosehart, H. Zareipour, A sequential planning approach for Distributed generation and natural gas networks. Energy 127, 428–437 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    M.S. Cong Liu, Y. Fu, Z. Li, Security-constrained unit commitment with natural gas transmission constraints. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 24(3), 1523–1536 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    X. Zhang, M. Shahidehpour, A. Alabdulwahab, A. Abusorrah, Hourly electricity demand response in the stochastic day-ahead scheduling of coordinated electricity and natural gas networks. IEEE Trans. Power Syst. 31(1), 592–601 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    M. Qadrdan, J. Wu, N. Jenkins, J. Ekanayake, Operating strategies for a GB integrated gas and electricity network considering the uncertainty in wind power forecasts. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 5(1), 128–138 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Y. Jiang et al., Coordinated operation of gas-electricity integrated distribution system with multi-CCHP and distributed renewable energy sources. Appl. Energy 211, 237–248 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. Alabdulwahab, A. Abusorrah, X. Zhang, M. Shahidehpour, Coordination of interdependent natural gas and electricity infrastructures for firming the variability of wind energy in stochastic day-ahead scheduling. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 6(2), 606–615 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    J.H. Zheng, Q.H. Wu, Z.X. Jing, Coordinated scheduling strategy to optimize conflicting benefits for daily operation of integrated electricity and gas networks. Appl. Energy 192, 370–381 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    T. Estermann, M. Newborough, M. Sterner, Power-to-gas systems for absorbing excess solar power in electricity distribution networks. Int. J. Hydrog. Energy 41(32), 13950–13959 (2016)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    C. He, L. Wu, T. Liu, M. Shahidehpour, Robust co-optimization scheduling of electricity and natural gas systems via ADMM. IEEE Trans. Sustain. Energy 8(2), 658–670 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza SoltaniNejad
    • 1
  • Ramin Bahmani
    • 1
  • Heidarali Shayanfar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center of Excellence for Power Systems Automation and Operation, School of Electrical Engineering Iran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran

Personalised recommendations