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Integrated Gas and Power Networks

  • Alireza SoltaniNejad
  • Ramin Bahmani
  • Heidarali ShayanfarEmail author
Chapter
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Abstract

This chapter proposes the integrated planning for the expansion and operation of the power system and the gas grid. In order to optimize energy usage and increase the efficiency, the simultaneous planning of the gas and electricity networks has been widely investigated. To this end, the use of devices and equipment connecting electricity and gas infrastructures such as Energy Hub and PtG have been considered, which have made the connection of these two infrastructures at different energy levels. The strong interdependence of these two infrastructures has encouraged researchers to consider security and economic issues simultaneously for these two infrastructures and to study them as an integrated system. There are various ways to plan expansion and operation that are discussed in detail in this chapter.

Keywords

Integrated co-planning Gas and electricity networks Power-to-gas (PtG) Energy hubs Expansion planning Operation planning 

Nomenclature

Sets

h

Index for energy hubs

l

Index for transmission line

η

Index of natural gas supply contract

GU

Set of gas-fired generating units

Parameters

\( \overline{F_k} \)

Maximum capacity of transmission line k

Zki

Gas compressibility factor at compressor inlet

αk, βk, γk

Gas consumption coefficients of compressor k

\( {R}_k^{\mathrm{max}} \)

Compression ratio of compressor k

\( {\pi}_i^{\mathrm{max}},{\pi}_i^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Max and min pressure at node i

\( \mathrm{W}{\mathrm{S}}_i^{\mathrm{max}},\mathrm{W}{\mathrm{S}}_i^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Max and min amount of gas supply at node i

A

Pipe-nodal incidence matrix

NC

Number of candidate compressors and existing compressors

NCG

Number of coal-fired generators

NWS

Number of gas suppliers

NWL

Number of gas loads

WLi

Natural gas load at node i

CarbonCost

Carbon emission price

PlineCosti

Investment cost of installing pipeline i

ClineCosti

Investment cost of installing compressor i

ElineCosti

Investment cost of installing electricity line

ξ1, ξ2

Carbon emission coefficient of coal-fired generator and gas-fired generator, respectively

Mk

Large enough input value

\( {P}_{gk}^{\mathrm{max}},{P}_{gk}^{\mathrm{min}} \)

Max and min capacity of generator k

Costgasi

Gas purchase cost of supplier i

ai, bi, ci

Coefficients of the operation cost of generator i

PLi

Real power load at node k

μ1, μ2, μ3

Gas fuel rate coefficients of generator i

GHV

Gas gross heating value

Mij

Gas pipeline constant depending on diameter, length, temperature, friction, and gas composition

ς

Coefficient of converting net present value to annualized investment cost

\( \mathrm{p}{\mathrm{f}}_g^{\mathrm{Gas}} \)

Participation factor of gas supply facilities g [p.u]

CFi, t

Capacity factor of electricity unit i during time period t [p.u]

Energy conversion factor

HHV

High heating value

\( {e}_a^{\mathrm{ptg}} \)

Efficiency of PtG facility a

σ

Discretized storage and inflow/outflow rate used to linearize the properties of the NG storage

ρin, ρout 

Inflow and outflow rate of storage

NT

Number of periods in the duration time

\( {L}_t^{\mathrm{E}} \)

Electricity power output within energy hub

Wo

Cost of firm natural gas contract

SU, SD

Startup and shutdown cost of a unit

ρLS

Penalty price of electricity load shedding

PLS

Electricity load shedding

VOLL

Penalty price of shed load

ρgas, gss

Price of natural gas and operation cost of gas storage s

Variables

zi

Binary decision variable, 1 if electricity line i is installed, and 0 otherwise

fPk

Natural gas flow of pipeline

Hk

Power for compressor k

σ

Specific heat ratio

fck

Gas flow rate at compressor k

πi, πj

Pressures at node I and j, respectively

τk

Amount of gas tapped by compressor k

xi

Binary decision variable, 1 if pipeline i is installed, and 0 otherwise

yi

Binary decision variable, 1 if compressor i is installed, and 0 otherwise

zi

Binary decision variable, 1 if electricity line i is installed, and 0 otherwise

WSi

Natural gas injection of gas supplier i

fpi

Natural gas flow of pipeline

fck

Gas flow rate at compressor k

flk

Power flow on transmission line k

Bk

Electrical susceptance of transmission line k

θfr(k), θto(k)

Voltage angle at “from” and “to” buses of transmission line k

Pgk

Real power supply from generator k

\( {p}_{g,t}^{\mathrm{G},\mathrm{N}} \)

Gas production of new gas supply projects g in time period t [TJ/h]

\( {p}_g^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{N}} \)

Gas supply capacity of new gas projects [TJ/year]

\( {p}_{g,t}^{\mathrm{G},\mathrm{Ex}} \)

Gas production of existing gas supply projects g in time period t [TJ/h]

\( {p}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{N}} \)

Electricity production of new unit i during time period t [MW]

\( {p}_i^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{N}} \)

Power capacity to be built for new unit i [MW]

\( {p}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{Ex}} \)

Electricity production of existing unit i during time period t [MW]

\( {p}_i^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{Ex}} \)

Power capacity of existing unit i [MW]

Gaht

Gas production of PtG facility a at load block h of year t

\( {P}_{aht}^{\mathrm{bc}} \)

Base-case power consumption of PtG a at load block h of year t

ψ

NG flow rate between NG node s i, j in time t

AC

Total available capacity

AUint, ALlnt

Binary variable which is equal to 1 if unit i/line l is available, being 0 otherwise

RM

Grid resilience metric

fi()

Electric load loss cost function

pdi, b, t

Load curtailment

W

Cost of natural gas contract

\( {P}_{i,t}^0 \)

Generation of unit I at hour t

\( \mathrm{L}{\mathrm{D}}_{j,t}^0 \)

Preventive load shedding at bus at hour t

vsp, t

Production of natural gas in well sp at hour t

GCs, t, GDs, t

Storing/releasing rate of storage s at hour

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alireza SoltaniNejad
    • 1
  • Ramin Bahmani
    • 1
  • Heidarali Shayanfar
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Center of Excellence for Power Systems Automation and Operation, School of Electrical Engineering Iran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran

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