Electricity Markets pp 37-60 | Cite as

# Integrated Gas and Power Networks

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## Abstract

This chapter proposes the integrated planning for the expansion and operation of the power system and the gas grid. In order to optimize energy usage and increase the efficiency, the simultaneous planning of the gas and electricity networks has been widely investigated. To this end, the use of devices and equipment connecting electricity and gas infrastructures such as Energy Hub and PtG have been considered, which have made the connection of these two infrastructures at different energy levels. The strong interdependence of these two infrastructures has encouraged researchers to consider security and economic issues simultaneously for these two infrastructures and to study them as an integrated system. There are various ways to plan expansion and operation that are discussed in detail in this chapter.

## Keywords

Integrated co-planning Gas and electricity networks Power-to-gas (PtG) Energy hubs Expansion planning Operation planning## Nomenclature

## Sets

*h*Index for energy hubs

*l*Index for transmission line

*η*Index of natural gas supply contract

- GU
Set of gas-fired generating units

## Parameters

- \( \overline{F_k} \)
Maximum capacity of transmission line

*k**Z*_{ki}Gas compressibility factor at compressor inlet

*α*_{k},*β*_{k},*γ*_{k}Gas consumption coefficients of compressor

*k*- \( {R}_k^{\mathrm{max}} \)
Compression ratio of compressor

*k*- \( {\pi}_i^{\mathrm{max}},{\pi}_i^{\mathrm{min}} \)
Max and min pressure at node

*i*- \( \mathrm{W}{\mathrm{S}}_i^{\mathrm{max}},\mathrm{W}{\mathrm{S}}_i^{\mathrm{min}} \)
Max and min amount of gas supply at node

*i**A*Pipe-nodal incidence matrix

- NC
Number of candidate compressors and existing compressors

- NCG
Number of coal-fired generators

- NWS
Number of gas suppliers

- NWL
Number of gas loads

- WL
_{i} Natural gas load at node

*i*- CarbonCost
Carbon emission price

*P*lineCost_{i}Investment cost of installing pipeline

*i**C*lineCost_{i}Investment cost of installing compressor

*i**E*lineCost_{i}Investment cost of installing electricity line

*ξ*_{1},*ξ*_{2}Carbon emission coefficient of coal-fired generator and gas-fired generator, respectively

*M*_{k}Large enough input value

- \( {P}_{gk}^{\mathrm{max}},{P}_{gk}^{\mathrm{min}} \)
Max and min capacity of generator

*k*- Cost
_{gasi} Gas purchase cost of supplier

*i**a*_{i},*b*_{i},*c*_{i}Coefficients of the operation cost of generator

*i*- PL
_{i} Real power load at node

*k**μ*_{1},*μ*_{2},*μ*_{3}Gas fuel rate coefficients of generator

*i*- GHV
Gas gross heating value

*M*_{ij}Gas pipeline constant depending on diameter, length, temperature, friction, and gas composition

*ς*Coefficient of converting net present value to annualized investment cost

- \( \mathrm{p}{\mathrm{f}}_g^{\mathrm{Gas}} \)
Participation factor of gas supply facilities

*g*[p.u]- CF
_{i, t} Capacity factor of electricity unit

*i*during time period*t*[p.u]- ∅
Energy conversion factor

- HHV
High heating value

- \( {e}_a^{\mathrm{ptg}} \)
Efficiency of PtG facility

*a**σ*Discretized storage and inflow/outflow rate used to linearize the properties of the NG storage

*ρ*^{in},*ρ*^{out}Inflow and outflow rate of storage

- NT
Number of periods in the duration time

- \( {L}_t^{\mathrm{E}} \)
Electricity power output within energy hub

*W*_{o}Cost of firm natural gas contract

- SU, SD
Startup and shutdown cost of a unit

*ρ*_{LS}Penalty price of electricity load shedding

*P*_{LS}Electricity load shedding

- VOLL
Penalty price of shed load

*ρ*_{gas}, gs_{s}Price of natural gas and operation cost of gas storage s

## Variables

*z*_{i}Binary decision variable, 1 if electricity line

*i*is installed, and 0 otherwise- fP
_{k} Natural gas flow of pipeline

*H*_{k}Power for compressor

*k**σ*Specific heat ratio

- fc
_{k} Gas flow rate at compressor

*k**π*_{i},*π*_{j}Pressures at node

*I*and*j*, respectively*τ*_{k}Amount of gas tapped by compressor

*k**x*_{i}Binary decision variable, 1 if pipeline

*i*is installed, and 0 otherwise*y*_{i}Binary decision variable, 1 if compressor

*i*is installed, and 0 otherwise*z*_{i}Binary decision variable, 1 if electricity line

*i*is installed, and 0 otherwise- WS
_{i} Natural gas injection of gas supplier

*i*- fp
_{i} Natural gas flow of pipeline

- fc
_{k} Gas flow rate at compressor

*k*- fl
_{k} Power flow on transmission line

*k**B*_{k}Electrical susceptance of transmission line

*k**θ*_{fr(k)},*θ*_{to(k)}Voltage angle at “from” and “to” buses of transmission line

*k**P*_{gk}Real power supply from generator

*k*- \( {p}_{g,t}^{\mathrm{G},\mathrm{N}} \)
Gas production of new gas supply projects

*g*in time period*t*[TJ/h]- \( {p}_g^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{N}} \)
Gas supply capacity of new gas projects [TJ/year]

- \( {p}_{g,t}^{\mathrm{G},\mathrm{Ex}} \)
Gas production of existing gas supply projects

*g*in time period*t*[TJ/h]- \( {p}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{N}} \)
Electricity production of new unit

*i*during time period*t*[MW]- \( {p}_i^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{N}} \)
Power capacity to be built for new unit

*i*[MW]- \( {p}_{i,t}^{\mathrm{Ex}} \)
Electricity production of existing unit

*i*during time period*t*[MW]- \( {p}_i^{\mathrm{C},\mathrm{Ex}} \)
Power capacity of existing unit

*i*[MW]*G*_{aht}Gas production of PtG facility

*a*at load block*h*of year*t*- \( {P}_{aht}^{\mathrm{bc}} \)
Base-case power consumption of PtG

*a*at load block*h*of year*t**ψ*NG flow rate between NG node s

*i, j*in time*t*- AC
Total available capacity

- AU
_{int}, AL_{lnt} Binary variable which is equal to 1 if unit

*i*/line*l*is available, being 0 otherwise- RM
Grid resilience metric

*f*_{i}()Electric load loss cost function

- pd
_{i, b, t} Load curtailment

*W*Cost of natural gas contract

- \( {P}_{i,t}^0 \)
Generation of unit

*I*at hour*t*- \( \mathrm{L}{\mathrm{D}}_{j,t}^0 \)
Preventive load shedding at bus at hour

*t**v*_{sp, t}Production of natural gas in well sp at hour

*t*- GC
_{s, t}, GD_{s, t} Storing/releasing rate of storage s at hour

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