Phenomenology of Dystonia

  • Steven J. FruchtEmail author
  • Pichet Termsarasab


Dystonia has a rich and varied history in nineteenth- and twentieth-century neurology. The phenomenology and breadth of forms of dystonia make this a challenging disorder for the neurologist and the patient. In the chapter, we review the clinical features of focal and generalized dystonic syndromes and illustrate how phenomenology can guide the evaluation and management of patients.


Sensory trick Focal dystonia Task specificity Generalized dystonia Pseudodystonia 

Supplementary material

Video 9.1

This chapter reviews the rich and varied phenomenology of dystonia and is divided into 17 segments: DYT dystonias (1, 3, 5, 6, 12, and 28); unknown primary dystonias; blepharospasm; lower cranial dystonia; Meige syndrome; embouchure dystonia; adductor spasmodic dysphonia; abductor spasmodic dysphonia; torticollis; musicians’ arm dystonia; writer’s cramp; other arm task-specific dystonias; lower extremity dystonia; truncal dystonia; secondary dystonias; pseudodystonia; and functional dystonia. Patients with DYT-11 (myoclonus-dystonia) are reviewed in Chap.  5. (MP4 6304296 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Movement DisordersNew York University Grossman School of Medicine, The Marlene and Paolo Fresco Institute for Parkinson’s and Movement Disorders, NYU Langone HealthNew YorkUSA
  2. 2.Division of Neurology, Faculty of MedicineRamathibodi Hospital, Mahidol UniversityBangkokThailand

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