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Blepharospasm, Hemifacial Spasm and Functional Applications of Neurotoxins in the Periocular Area:

  • Pelin Kaynak
  • Nadeen El ToukhyEmail author
Chapter
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

The therapeutic use of botulinum toxin (BTX) for periocular area pathologies is repeatable, safe and temporarily effective. BTX applications for the treatment of eyelid retraction, entropion, blepharospasm and hemifacial spasm, lagophthalmos due to facial paralysis, apraxia of eyelid opening and synkinetic eyelid movements and functional epiphora are reviewed.

Keywords

Botulinum toxin Periocular botulinum toxin applications Blepharospasm Eyelid retraction Apraxia of eyelid opening Synkinetic eyelid movements Functional epiphora Gustatory epiphora 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Associate Professor of OphthalmologyRufus Eye Microsurgical CenterIstanbulTurkey
  2. 2.University of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA

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