Advertisement

Blood Pressure in Thyroid Dysfunction

  • Avais Jabbar
  • Salman RazviEmail author
Chapter
  • 38 Downloads

Abstract

The prevalence of elevated blood pressure is rapidly increasing worldwide due to an ageing population, lifestyle changes and urbanisation. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimates that 31% of all adults were suffering from elevated blood pressure in the United States in 1999–2000 [1]. On average, every 4 years, 19% of people with elevated BP progresses to clinical hypertension which contributes to the burden of heart disease, stroke and kidney failure and premature mortality and disability [2]. The identification and subsequent address of potential risk factors are essential steps in the prevention and control of elevated blood pressure.

Keywords

Thyroid Blood pressure Hypertension Hypothyroidism Hyperthyroidism 

References

  1. 1.
    Wang Y, Wang QJ. The prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension among US adults according to the new joint national committee guidelines: new challenges of the old problem. Arch Intern Med. 2004;164(19):2126–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vasan RS, Larson MG, Leip EP, Kannel WB, Levy D. Assessment of frequency of progression to hypertension in non-hypertensive participants in the Framingham Heart Study: a cohort study. Lancet. 2001;358(9294):1682–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Jabbar A, Pingitore A, Pearce SH, Zaman A, Iervasi G, Razvi S. Thyroid hormones and cardiovascular disease. Nat Rev Cardiol. 2017;14(1):39–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hiroi Y, Kim HH, Ying H, Furuya F, Huang Z, Simoncini T, et al. Rapid nongenomic actions of thyroid hormone. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103(38):14104–9.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Danzi S, Klein I. Thyroid hormone and blood pressure regulation. Curr Hypertens Rep. 2003;5(6):513–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bahouth SW, Cui X, Beauchamp MJ, Park EA. Thyroid hormone induces beta1-adrenergic receptor gene transcription through a direct repeat separated by five nucleotides. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1997;29(12):3223–37.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Klein I, Ojamaa K. Thyroid hormone and the cardiovascular system. N Engl J Med. 2001;344(7):501–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Klein I, Danzi S. Thyroid disease and the heart. Circulation. 2007;116(15):1725–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ching GW, Franklyn JA, Stallard TJ, Daykin J, Sheppard MC, Gammage MD. Cardiac hypertrophy as a result of long-term thyroxine therapy and thyrotoxicosis. Heart. 1996;75(4):363–8.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Iglesias P, Acosta M, Sanchez R, Fernandez-Reyes MJ, Mon C, Diez JJ. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in patients with hyperthyroidism before and after control of thyroid function. Clin Endocrinol. 2005;63(1):66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Saito I, Saruta T. Hypertension in thyroid disorders. Endocrinol Metab Clin N Am. 1994;23(2):379–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Osman F, Franklyn JA, Holder RL, Sheppard MC, Gammage MD. Cardiovascular manifestations of hyperthyroidism before and after antithyroid therapy: a matched case-control study. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2007;49(1):71–81.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Volzke H, Ittermann T, Schmidt CO, Dorr M, John U, Wallaschofski H, et al. Subclinical hyperthyroidism and blood pressure in a population-based prospective cohort study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;161(4):615–21.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Cai Y, Ren Y, Shi J. Blood pressure levels in patients with subclinical thyroid dysfunction: a meta-analysis of cross-sectional data. Hypertens Res. 2011;34(10):1098–105.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Volzke H, Alte D, Dorr M, Wallaschofski H, John U, Felix SB, et al. The association between subclinical hyperthyroidism and blood pressure in a population-based study. J Hypertens. 2006;24(10):1947–53.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, O’Leary P, Leedman PJ, Feddema P, et al. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and blood pressure: a community-based study. Clin Endocrinol. 2006;65(4):486–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Walsh JP, Bremner AP, Bulsara MK, O'Leary P, Leedman PJ, Feddema P, et al. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Arch Intern Med. 2005;165(21):2467–72.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Kaminski G, Makowski K, Michalkiewicz D, Kowal J, Ruchala M, Szczepanek E, et al. The influence of subclinical hyperthyroidism on blood pressure, heart rate variability, and prevalence of arrhythmias. Thyroid. 2012;22(5):454–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biondi B, Cooper DS. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Endocr Rev. 2008;29(1):76–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Duan Y, Peng W, Wang X, Tang W, Liu X, Xu S, et al. Community-based study of the association of subclinical thyroid dysfunction with blood pressure. Endocrine. 2009;35(2):136–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liu D, Jiang F, Shan Z, Wang B, Wang J, Lai Y, et al. A cross-sectional survey of relationship between serum TSH level and blood pressure. J Hum Hypertens. 2010;24(2):134–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Luboshitzky R, Aviv A, Herer P, Lavie L. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women with subclinical hypothyroidism. Thyroid. 2002;12(5):421–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Fommei E, Iervasi G. The role of thyroid hormone in blood pressure homeostasis: evidence from short-term hypothyroidism in humans. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(5):1996–2000.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dart AM, Lacombe F, Yeoh JK, Cameron JD, Jennings GL, Laufer E, et al. Aortic distensibility in patients with isolated hypercholesterolaemia, coronary artery disease, or cardiac transplant. Lancet. 1991;338(8762):270–3.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, Gautier I, Laloux B, Guize L, et al. Aortic stiffness is an independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hypertensive patients. Hypertension. 2001;37(5):1236–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dernellis J, Panaretou M. Effects of thyroid replacement therapy on arterial blood pressure in patients with hypertension and hypothyroidism. Am Heart J. 2002;143(4):718–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Obuobie K, Smith J, Evans LM, John R, Davies JS, Lazarus JH. Increased central arterial stiffness in hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(10):4662–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nagasaki T, Inaba M, Kumeda Y, Hiura Y, Shirakawa K, Yamada S, et al. Increased pulse wave velocity in subclinical hypothyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(1):154–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nagasaki T, Inaba M, Yamada S, Kumeda Y, Hiura Y, Nishizawa Y. Changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in subclinical hypothyroidism during normalization of thyroid function. Biomed Pharmacother. 2007;61(8):482–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Nagasaki T, Inaba M, Yamada S, Shirakawa K, Nagata Y, Kumeda Y, et al. Decrease of brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity in female subclinical hypothyroid patients during normalization of thyroid function: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2009;160(3):409–15.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Lerman A, Zeiher AM. Endothelial function: cardiac events. Circulation. 2005;111(3):363–8.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lekakis J, Papamichael C, Alevizaki M, Piperingos G, Marafelia P, Mantzos J, et al. Flow-mediated, endothelium-dependent vasodilation is impaired in subjects with hypothyroidism, borderline hypothyroidism, and high-normal serum thyrotropin (TSH) values. Thyroid. 1997;7(3):411–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Razvi S, Ingoe L, Keeka G, Oates C, McMillan C, Weaver JU. The beneficial effect of L-thyroxine on cardiovascular risk factors, endothelial function, and quality of life in subclinical hypothyroidism: randomized, crossover trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92(5):1715–23.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Taddei S, Caraccio N, Virdis A, Dardano A, Versari D, Ghiadoni L, et al. Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in subclinical hypothyroidism: beneficial effect of levothyroxine therapy. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2003;88(8):3731–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Marazuela M, Sanchez-Madrid F, Acevedo A, Larranaga E, de Landazuri MO. Expression of vascular adhesion molecules on human endothelia in autoimmune thyroid disorders. Clin Exp Immunol. 1995;102(2):328–34.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Taddei S, Caraccio N, Virdis A, Dardano A, Versari D, Ghiadoni L, et al. Low-grade systemic inflammation causes endothelial dysfunction in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2006;91(12):5076–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Kvetny J, Heldgaard PE, Bladbjerg EM, Gram J. Subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with a low-grade inflammation, increased triglyceride levels and predicts cardiovascular disease in males below 50 years. Clin Endocrinol. 2004;61(2):232–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Turemen EE, Cetinarslan B, Sahin T, Canturk Z, Tarkun I. Endothelial dysfunction and low grade chronic inflammation in subclinical hypothyroidism due to autoimmune thyroiditis. Endocr J. 2011;58(5):349–54.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Cikim AS, Oflaz H, Ozbey N, Cikim K, Umman S, Meric M, et al. Evaluation of endothelial function in subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism. Thyroid. 2004;14(8):605–9.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hak AE, Pols HA, Visser TJ, Drexhage HA, Hofman A, Witteman JC. Subclinical hypothyroidism is an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction in elderly women: the Rotterdam Study. Ann Intern Med. 2000;132(4):270–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Suarez J, Wang H, Scott BT, Ling H, Makino A, Swanson E, et al. In vivo selective expression of thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 in endothelial cells attenuates myocardial injury in experimental myocardial infarction in mice. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2014;307(3):R340–6.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Carrillo-Sepulveda MA, Ceravolo GS, Fortes ZB, Carvalho MH, Tostes RC, Laurindo FR, et al. Thyroid hormone stimulates NO production via activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in vascular myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 2010;85(3):560–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Suarez J. Thyroid hormone receptor-beta promotes angiogenesis stimulating ERK phosphorylation. FASEB J. 2010;24(1).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Cheng SY, Leonard JL, Davis PJ. Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone actions. Endocr Rev. 2010;31(2):139–70.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Tomanek RJ, Doty MK, Sandra A. Early coronary angiogenesis in response to thyroxine: growth characteristics and upregulation of basic fibroblast growth factor. Circ Res. 1998;82(5):587–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Watford General HospitalWatfordUK
  2. 2.Institute of Clinical and Translational Medicine, Newcastle University/Queen Elizabeth HospitalNewcastle upon TyneUK

Personalised recommendations