Physiological and Pathological Cardiac Remodeling in Altered Thyroid Hormone States

  • Viswanathan Rajagopalan
  • A. Martin GerdesEmail author


The heart responds to diverse stimuli by restructuring itself. Global remodeling is regulated by changes at the tissue, cellular, interstitial, biochemical, genetic and epigenetic levels. The transition from physiological compensation to decompensation has been a target for interventional strategies. Thyroid hormones (THs) also play a critical role in guiding this structural rearrangement. A balance in TH levels (both systemic and cellular) is vital for the adaptive regulation of remodeling, with hormone imbalance leading to maladaptive changes. TH imbalance can result either primarily from changes in hormone release from the thyroid gland or secondarily from altered bioavailability at the peripheral organ level. Recent findings indicate that numerous cardiovascular diseases suffer from aberrant changes in TH-based molecular mechanisms resulting in remodeling at the cellular and organ levels. This chapter discusses mechanisms and significance of physiological and pathological cardiac remodeling processes in altered TH states.


Remodeling Thyroid hormone Cardiac hypertrophy Ventricular dilation Myocyte shape Heart failure 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.New York Institute of Technology, College of Osteopathic Medicine at A-StateJonesboroUSA
  2. 2.NYITCOM College of Osteopathic Medicine Biomedical Sciences DepartmentOld WestburyUSA

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