Advertisement

Theoretical and Experimental Research on the Mass Changes of Elements in Molten Steel with CO2 Used as RH Lifting Gas

  • Baochen HanEmail author
  • Rong Zhu
  • Guangsheng Wei
  • Chao Feng
  • Jianfeng Dong
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

CO2 injection into RH as lifting gas was recently proposed instead of Ar. In this study, FactSage software was used for calculating the mass changes of elements in thermodynamic equilibrium with CO2 injection under vacuum condition. Compared with Ar, CO2 as RH lifting gas can be used for a small amount of decarburization without a significant increase in oxygen content of molten steel. And the carbon content of alloys can be theoretically increased by more than 12% if all CO2 participates in the reaction between CO2 and [C]. Furthermore, the industrial application research of CO2 injection into RH as lifting gas was carried out in a commercial 150t RH. The results agreed with the above theoretical trends. And the problem of aluminum loss can be solved by reducing the additive amount of aluminum alloy in the ladle furnace (LF) and replenishing the aluminum during the RH refining later stage.

Keywords

Carbon dioxide RH refining Mass change Thermodynamic calculation Industrial test 

References

  1. 1.
    Li YH, Bao YP, Wang M, Wang R, Tang DC (2015) Influence of process conditions during Ruhrstahl-Hereaeus refining process and effect of vacuum degassing on carbon removal to ultra-low levels. Ironmaking Steelmaking 42:366–372CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Demaglie GR, Tangari P, Fera S, Colla V (2013) Improving manufacturing of ULC steel grades by revamping of RH degasser in steelmaking shop No. 2 of ILVA, Taranto Works. Ironmaking Steelmaking 37:257–261CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Feng K, Wang HB, Xu AJ, He DF (2013) Endpoint temperature prediction of molten steel in RH using improved case-based reasoning. Int J Miner Metall Mater 20:1148–1154CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Geng DQ, Lei H, He JC (2012) Simulation on flow field and mixing phenomenon in RH degasser with ladle bottom blowing. Ironmaking Steelmaking 39:431–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Park YG, Yi KW, Ahn SB (2001) The effect of operating parameters and dimensions of the RH system on melt circulation using numerical calculations. ISIJ Int 41:403–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yang GW, Wang XH, Huang FX, Wang WJ, Yin YQ (2014) Transient inclusion evolution during RH degassing. Steel Res Int 85:26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Zhang J, Liu L, Zhao X, Lei S, Dong Q (2014) Mathematical model for decarburization process in RH refining process. ISIJ Int 54:1560–1569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    da Silva CA, da Silva IA, de Castro Martins EM, Seshadri V, Perim CA, Vargas Filho GA (2004) Fluid flow and mixing characteristics in RH degasser of Companhia Siderurgica de Tubarao, and influence of bottom gas injection and nozzle blockage through physical modelling study. Ironmaking Steelmaking 31:37–42Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang LF, Li F (2014) Investigation on the fluid flow and mixing phenomena in a Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) steel degasser using physical modeling. JOM 66:1227–1240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ajmani SK, Dash SK, Chandra S, Bhanu C (2004) Mixing evaluation in the RH process using mathematical modeling. ISIJ Int 44:82–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Korneev VM, Ovsyannikov VG, Burmistrova EV, Frolov VI, Samoilin SA (2005) Improving the steel degassing technology by use of large-diameter snorkels. Refract Ind Ceram 46:153–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kuwabara T, Umezawa K, Mori K, Watanabe H (1988) Investigation of decarburization behavior in RH-reactor and its operation improvement. Trans ISIJ 28:305–313CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ling H, Zhang LF, Liu C (2018) Effect of snorkel shape on the fluid flow during RH degassing process: mathematical modelling. Ironmaking Steelmaking 45:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Jiang F, Cheng GG (2012) Effects of gas injection with multi-hole orifices in up-leg snorkel on bubble behaviour and decarburisation rate during RH refining. Ironmaking Steelmaking 39:386–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kishan PA, Dash SK (2009) Prediction of circulation flow rate in the RH degasser using discrete phase particle modeling. ISIJ Int 49:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Obata F, Waka R, Uehara K, Ito K, Kawata Y (2000) Circulation characteristics of RH degassing vessel water model with multi-legs. Tetsu-to-Hagane 86:225–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chen GJ, He SP, Li YG, Guo YT, Wang Q (2016) Investigation of gas and liquid multiphase flow in the Rheinsahl-Heraeus (RH) reactor by using the Euler-Euler approach. JOM 68:1–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Chen GJ, He SP (2016) Mixing behavior in the RH degasser with bottom gas injection. Vacuum 130:48–55CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Han BC, Zhu R, Zhu YQ, Liu RZ, Wu WH, Li Q, Wei GS (2018) Research on selective oxidation of carbon and aluminum with introduction of CO2 in RH refining of low-carbon steel process. Metall Mater Trans B 49:3544–3551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cho MK, Van Ende MA, Eun TH, Jung IH (2012) Investigation of slag-refractory interactions for the Ruhrstahl-Heraeus (RH) vacuum degassing process in steelmaking. J Eur Ceram Soc 32:1503–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bale CW, Bélisle E, Chartrand P, Decterov SA, Eriksson G, Gheribi AE, Hack K, Jung IH, Kang YB, Melancon J, Pelton AD, Petersen S, Robelin C, Sangster J, Spencer P, Van Ende MA (2016) FactSage thermochemical software and databases, 2010–2016. Calphad-Comput Coupling Phase Diagrams Thermochem 54:35–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wei GS, Zhu R, Wu XT, Dong K, Yang LZ, Liu RZ (2018) Technological innovations of carbon dioxide injection in EAF-LF steelmaking. JOM 70:969–976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hornby S, Doulas L, Bermel L (1990) Use of CO2 in the AOD. In: Electric furnace conference proceedingsGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bruce T, Weisang F, Allibert M (1987) Effects of CO2 stirring in a ladle. In: Electric furnace conference proceeding, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gu YL, Wang HJ, Zhu R, Wang J, Lv M, Wang H (2014) Study on experiment and mechanism of bottom blowing CO2 during the LF refining process. Steel Res Int 85:589–598CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kishimoto Y, Yamaguchi K, Sakuraya T, Fujii T (1993) Decarburization reaction in ultra-low carbon iron melt under reduced pressure. ISIJ Int 33:391–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Baochen Han
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Rong Zhu
    • 1
    • 2
  • Guangsheng Wei
    • 1
    • 2
  • Chao Feng
    • 1
  • Jianfeng Dong
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Metallurgical and Ecological EngineeringUniversity of Science and TechnologyBeijing, BeijingChina
  2. 2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Research Center of Special Melting and Preparation of High-End Metal MaterialsUniversity of Science and TechnologyBeijing, BeijingChina

Personalised recommendations