A Transparent Referendum Protocol with Immutable Proceedings and Verifiable Outcome for Trustless Networks

  • Maximilian SchiedermeierEmail author
  • Omar Hasan
  • Lionel Brunie
  • Tobias Mayer
  • Harald Kosch
Conference paper
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 881)


High voter turnout in elections and referendums is very desirable in order to ensure a robust democracy. Secure electronic voting is a vision for the future of elections and referendums. Such a system can counteract factors that hinder strong voter turnout such as the requirement of physical presence during limited hours at polling stations. However, this vision brings transparency and confidentiality requirements that render the design of such solutions challenging. Specifically, the counting must be implemented in a reproducible way and the ballots of individual voters must remain concealed. In this paper, we propose and evaluate a referendum protocol that ensures transparency, confidentiality and integrity, in trustless networks. The protocol is built by combining Secure Multi-Party Computation (SMPC) and Distributed Ledger or Blockchain technology. The persistence and immutability of the protocol communication allows verifiability of the referendum outcome on the client side. Voters therefore do not need to trust in third parties. We provide a formal description and conduct a thorough security evaluation of our proposal.


E-Voting Trustless networks Political networks Transparency Unlinkability Blockchain 


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maximilian Schiedermeier
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Omar Hasan
    • 2
  • Lionel Brunie
    • 2
  • Tobias Mayer
    • 2
    • 3
  • Harald Kosch
    • 4
  1. 1.DISLMcGill UniversityMontréalCanada
  2. 2.INSA Lyon (LIRIS)VilleurbanneFrance
  3. 3.Verimi GmbHBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Universität PassauPassauGermany

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