Optimization of Opuntia Dose as Bio-flocculant for Oil Refinery Wastewater Using Response Surface Methodology

  • Ouafae DkhissiEmail author
  • Ahmed El Hakmaoui
  • Hajar Bakraouy
  • Mohamed Chatoui
  • Mouhcin Fadil
  • Y. Kadmi
  • Salah Souabi
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1104)


Oil refinery wastewater is one of the most polluted types of wastewater with a large variety of organic and mineral pollutants, which need treatment before discharge to the receiving environment. The coagulation–flocculation process was used to treat oil refinery wastewater with ferric chloride (FeCl3-40%) as a coagulant and cactus juice was used as a flocculant to reduce turbidity and chemical oxygen demand (COD).

A response surface methodology (RSM) design was applied to optimize the process the three factors coagulant, bio-flocculant doses, and pH. Obtained optimal dosages were: 1.12 g/l of coagulant and 11.6 ml/l of bio-flocculant and 9.38 of pH. Removal efficiencies under optimal conditions reached: 97.92 ± 0.66% and 62.41 ± 8.12% for turbidity and COD, respectively. The experiment results showed the capability of ferric chloride as coagulant and cactus as bio-flocculant for reducing the pollutants from oil refinery wastewater.


Oil refinery wastewater Response surface methodology Bio-flocculant Coagulation-flocculation Factorial design 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ouafae Dkhissi
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ahmed El Hakmaoui
    • 1
  • Hajar Bakraouy
    • 2
  • Mohamed Chatoui
    • 2
  • Mouhcin Fadil
    • 3
  • Y. Kadmi
    • 4
    • 5
  • Salah Souabi
    • 2
  1. 1.Laboratory of Physical Chemistry Bio-organic Chemistry, URAC22, Re PAM Pole, Faculty of Sciences Techniques MohammediaHassan II University of CasablancaCasablancaMorocco
  2. 2.Laboratory of Process Engineering and Environment Faculty of Science and Technology MohammediaHassan II University of CasablancaCasablancaMorocco
  3. 3.Application Organic Chemistry Laboratory, Faculty of Sciences and TechniquesSidi Mohamed Ben Abdellah UniversityFezMorocco
  4. 4.Laboratoire de Spectrochimie Infrarouge et Raman (LASIR)UMR CNRS 8516, Université de LilleVilleneuve-d’AscqFrance
  5. 5.IUT de BéthuneUniversité de l’ArtoisBéthuneFrance

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