Finite Element Modeling of an Optimized Liquefier Design for 3D Printing of CFRTPCs by Thermal Simulation

  • Aissa OuballouchEmail author
  • Rachid El Alaiji
  • Mohammed Sallaou
  • Aboubakr Bouayad
  • Larbi Lasri
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing book series (AISC, volume 1104)


This paper aims to propose a design of 3D printer liquefier for continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTPCs) by analyzing the performance of its thermal behavior. This new liquefying system is based on the design of the widely commonly used RepRap E3D V6 extruder. The proposed heating system considers the optimization of wire feeding mechanism and fan energies, durability of the 3D printing (3DP) machine and the quality of the process. Thus, the resulted design consists of the main components of E3D V6 extruder and two other parts with relevant shape. This latter ensure the appropriate mixing of polymer/fiber and the vehicling of the both materials simultaneously through the hot end. In particular, this work focuses on the temperature distribution of polylactic acid (PLA) material and its optimum fabrication conditions reinforced by carbon fibers. A parametric study of material and shape was conducted and was led to the final design. The implemented finite element model (FEM) is useful for similar designs with the same working principles.


CFRTPCs Liquefier Thermal behavior RepRap 3DP Temperature distribution PLA Carbon fiber Parametric study FEM 


  1. 1.
    ASTM F2792 - 12 Standard Terminology for Additive Manufacturing Technologies. Accessed 30 July 2019
  2. 2.
    Yang, C., Tian, X., Liu, T., Cao, Y., Li, D.: 3D printing for continuous fiber reinforced thermoplastic composites: mechanism and performance (2016).
  3. 3.
    Tian, X., Liu, T., Yang, C., Wang, Q., Li, D.: Interface and performance of 3D printed continuous carbon fiber reinforced PLA composites. Compos. Part A Appl. Sci. Manuf. 88, 198–205 (2016). Scholar
  4. 4.
    Van Der Klift, F., Koga, Y., Todoroki, A., Ueda, M., Hirano, Y.: 3D printing of continuous carbon fibre reinforced thermo-plastic (CFRTP) tensile test specimens, 18–27 (2016).
  5. 5.
    Ueda, M., et al.: Three-dimensional printing of continuous-fiber composites by in-nozzle impregnation. Sci. Rep. 6(1), 1–7 (2016). Scholar
  6. 6.
    Yamawaki, M., Kouno, Y.: Fabrication and mechanical characterization of continuous carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic using a preform by three-dimensional printing and via hot-press molding. Adv. Compos. Mater. 3046, 1–11 (2018). Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fidan, I., et al.: The trends and challenges of fiber reinforced additive manufacturing (2019).
  8. 8.
    Jerez-Mesa, R., Gomez-Gras, G., Travieso-Rodriguez, J.A., Garcia-Plana, V.: A comparative study of the thermal behavior of three different 3D printer liquefiers. Mechatronics 56, 297–305 (2018). Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jerez-mesa, R., Gómez-gras, G.: Finite element analysis of the thermal behavior of a RepRap 3D printer liquefier (2016).
  10. 10.
    Sukindar, N.A., Mohd Ariffin, M.K.A., Tuah Baharudin, B.T.H., Binti Jaafar, C.N.A., Ismail, M.I.S.: Analysis on temperature setting for extruding polylactic acid using open-source 3D printer. ARPN J. Eng. Appl. Sci. 12(4), 1348–1353 (2017)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hotend E3D v6 for 1.75mm fillament | 3D CAD Model Library | GrabCAD. Accessed 30 July 2019
  12. 12.
    Barbu, V.: Stabilization of Navier–stokes flows, pp. 87–175 (2011).
  13. 13.
    Reddy, J.N., Gartling, D.K.: The Finite Element Method in Heat Transfer and Fluid Dynamics, p. 500. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2010)zbMATHGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aissa Ouballouch
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rachid El Alaiji
    • 2
  • Mohammed Sallaou
    • 1
  • Aboubakr Bouayad
    • 1
  • Larbi Lasri
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Engineering Sciences and TradesMoulay Ismail University ENSAMMeknesMorocco
  2. 2.Laboratory of Innovative TechnologiesAbdelmalek Essaadi University ENSATangierMorocco

Personalised recommendations