Carbon Paste Electrodes Modified with Bismuth Film and Walnut Shell Activated Carbon for the Detection of Lead Ions
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Heavy metals pollution is one of the most severe environmental problems, and that needs any necessary regulations to control it. However, numerous endeavors have been made to create sensors for observing heavy metals in the environment.
In this work, we used the carbon paste electrodes modified with bismuth film and walnut shell activated carbon (AC-CPE) in order to detect the lead ions using cyclic voltammetry (CV), square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The electrode surface morphology has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
The morphology of the activated carbon showed more void space and higher porosity on its surface. To optimize the electrochemical experimental parameters, many experimental and instrumental variables were investigated.
The results obtained with these conditions are satisfying and we can use it to analyze trace concentration. The calibration plots were linear in the range of 3.02 × 10−6 to 3.02 × 10−8 M, with a limit of detection of 4.03 × 10−9 M. The method showed a good repeatability at 1.66% (n = 3).
KeywordsElectrochemical sensor Lead ions Square wave voltammetry Walnut shell activated carbon Bismuth film
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