The Multifaceted Roles of CXCL9 Within the Tumor Microenvironment
- 56 Downloads
Chemokines are soluble proteins that orchestrate cell migration in a regulated concentration gradient. During early stages of tumor development, chemokines shape the immune landscape of tumor microenvironment. CXCL9, also known as monokine induced by gamma-interferon (MIG), can be produced during inflammatory conditions by myeloid cells within the tumor microenvironment. It attracts cells expressing the CXCR3 receptor including activated T and NK cells and has been shown to play a role in responses to immune checkpoint therapy. Overexpression of CXCL9 has also shown to reduce tumor progression and metastasis via the inhibition of angiogenesis. Conversely, CXCL9 can act directly on tumor cells expressing the CXCR3 receptor to promote cell migration and epithelial mesenchymal transition. In this chapter we discuss the anti- and pro-tumoral features of CXCL9 within the tumor microenvironment.
KeywordsCXCL9 MIG CXCR3 Chemokines Tumor microenvironment Inflammation T cells NK cells Tumors Migration Epithelial mesenchymal transition Metastasis Angiogenesis CXC chemokines Biomarker
- 6.Gorbachev A, Petro M (2011) Expression of CXCL9/Mig in the tumor microenvironment is critical for recruitment of CD8 T cells and suppression of cutaneous tumor growth. J Immunol 186:48.4Google Scholar
- 9.Lasagni L, Francalanci M, Annunziato F, Lazzeri E, Giannini S, Cosmi L et al (2003) An alternatively spliced variant of CXCR3 mediates the inhibition of endothelial cell growth induced by IP-10, Mig, and I-TAC, and acts as functional receptor for platelet factor 4. J Exp Med 197(11):1537–1549PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Proost P, Verpoest S, Van de Borne K, Schutyser E, Struyf S, Put W et al (2004) Synergistic induction of CXCL9 and CXCL11 by Toll-like receptor ligands and interferon-gamma in fibroblasts correlates with elevated levels of CXCR3 ligands in septic arthritis synovial fluids. J Leukocyte Biol 75(5):777–784PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar