Advertisement

Olympic Gigantism and the Multifaceted Concept of Sports Venues

  • Melina Giannakopoulou
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics book series (SPBE)

Abstract

The immense growth in popularity and the universal acceptance of the Olympic ideals has led, amongst others, to an increase in all aspects of Games participation, organization, complexity and cost. Increases in the number of sports, disciplines and events, as well as competing nations, athletes and attending media, have led to a quadrupling in numbers and requirements in all Games-related areas. These increases have affected not only the number of technical officials, workforce, security, volunteers, accommodation and transport, but most notably the number and size of venues and their standards. Through literature review this paper discusses the key factors in connection to the increasing scale and scope of the Olympics and outlines the underlying problems, whilst simultaneously shedding light on the diverse and controversial attributes ascribed to sports venues, which impede their post-Games management.

Keywords

Olympic gigantism Spots venues Flagships White elephants 

JEL Classification

L83 Z20 Z23 Z28 

References

  1. Alm, J. (2012). World stadium index. Stadiums built for major sporting events—Bright future or future burden. Play the Game/Danish Institute for Sports Studies. Retrieved from https://www.playthegame.org/fileadmin/documents/World_Stadium_Index_Final.pdf
  2. Alm, J., Solberg, H. A., Storm, K. R., & Jakobsen, T. G. (2016). Hosting major sports events: The challenge of taming white elephants. Leisure Studies, 35, 564–582.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bailey, S. (2008). Athlete first: A history of the Paralympic movement. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  4. Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1997). Writing narrative literature reviews. Review of General Psychology, 1, 311–320.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bolz, D. (2012). Olympic heritage—An international legacy: The invention of the modern Olympic Stadium from Coubertin to 1948. In J. Hill, K. Moore, & J. Wood (Eds.), Sport, history, and heritage: Studies in public representation. Woodbridge: Boydell Press.Google Scholar
  6. Cashman, R. (1999). Legacy. In R. Cashman & A. Hughes (Eds.), Staging the Olympics: The event and its impact. Sydney: UNSW Press.Google Scholar
  7. Cashman, R., & Darcy, S. (Eds.). (2008). Benchmark games: The Sydney 2000 Paralympic games. Petersham, NSW: Walla Walla Press in Conjunction with the Australian Centre for Olympic Studies.Google Scholar
  8. Chapin, T. S. (2004). Sports facilities as urban redevelopment catalysts: Baltimore’s Camden Yards and Cleveland’s Gateway. Journal of the American Planning Association, 70(2), 193–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chappelet, J. L. (2014). Managing the size of the Olympic Games. Sport in Society, 17(5), 581–592.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chappelet, J. L., & Kuebler, B. (2008). The IOC and the Olympic system. The governance of world sport. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. Chappelet, J. L., & Parent, M. (2015). The (wide) world of sports events. In Routledge handbook of sports event management (pp. 19–36). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  12. Coakley, J. J., & Souza, D. L. (2013). Sport mega-events: Can legacies and development be equitable and sustainable? Motriz: Revista de Educação Física, 19(3), 580–589. ISSN 1980-6574.Google Scholar
  13. Darcy, S., & Taylor, T. (2013). Managing Olympic venues. In S. Frawley & D. Adair (Eds.), Managing the Olympics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. Deng, Y. (2013). Conceptualizing mega-event flagships—A case study of China pavilion of Expo 2010 Shanghai China. Frontiers of Architectural Research, 2(1), 107–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Deng, Y., & Poon, S. W. (2013). Meeting sustainability challenges of mega-event flagships. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management, 20(1), 46–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farry, W. (2015). China’s long game of stadium diplomacy in Africa. Retrieved from https://gbtimes.com/chinas-long-game-stadium-diplomacy-africa
  17. Frawley, S., & Adair, D. (2013). The Olympic Games: Managerial and strategic dimensions. In S. Frawley & D. Adair (Eds.), Managing the Olympics. London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gold, J. R., & Gold, M. M. (2011). The summer Olympics. In J. R. Gold & M. M. Gold (Eds.), Olympic cities: City agendas, planning and the world’s games, 1896–2016. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gold, J. R., & Gold, M. M. (2013). Bring it under the legacy umbrella: Olympic host cities and the changing fortunes of the sustainability agenda. Sustainability, 5, 3526–3542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Guttmann, A. (2002). The Olympics: A history of the modern games (2nd rev. ed.). Champaign, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  21. Harvey, D. (1989). From managerialism to entrepreneurialism: The transformation in urban governance in late capitalism. Geografiska Annaler: Series B, Human Geography, 71(1), 3–17. The Roots of Geographical Change: 1973 to the Present.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Koch, N., & Valiyev, A. (2016). Urban boosterism in closed contexts: Spectacular urbanization and second-tier mega-events in three Caspian capitals. Eurasian Geography and Economics, 56(5), 1–24.Google Scholar
  23. Liu, C., Ding, Q., & Sun, Y. (2008). Research on the factors of the urban system influenced post-development of the Olympics’ venues. In F. Sun, J. Zhang, Y. Tan, J. Cao, & W. Yu (Eds.), Advances in neural networks—ISNN 2008 (Lecture Notes in Computer Science) (Vol. 5264). Berlin: Springer.Google Scholar
  24. Mako, V., Blagojevic, M. R., & Lazara, M. V. (2014). Architecture and ideology. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  25. Menary, S. (2015). China’s programme of stadium diplomacy. ICSS Journal, 3(3), 2–9.Google Scholar
  26. Monclús, F. J. (2003). The Barcelona model: And an original formula? From “reconstruction” to strategic urban projects (1979–2004). Planning Perspectives, 18, 399–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Murray, S. (2018). Sports diplomacy: Origins, theory and practice. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olympic Games Study Commission. (2002). Interim report to the 114th IOC session.Google Scholar
  29. Pitts, A., & Liao, H. (2013). An assessment technique for the evaluation and promotion of sustainable Olympic design and urban development. Building Research & Information, 41(6), 722–734.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pound, R. (2016). The management of big games: An introduction. Sport in Society, 19(6), 786–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Prasser, S. (2007). Chapter 5. Overcoming the ‘white elephant syndrome’ in big and iconic projects in the public and private sectors. In J. Wanna (Ed.), Improving implementation organisational change and project management (pp. 47–68). Canberra: ANU E Press.Google Scholar
  32. Rosenthal, S. (2017). Olympic cities and the legacy of infrastructure: Barcelona 1992 and Athens 2004. Senior Capstone Projects.Google Scholar
  33. Schmidt, T. (2002). Olympic Stadiums of the modern age—Construction trends of the 20th century. In: Sport sites culture ICOMOS Journal of the German National Committee XXXVIII.Google Scholar
  34. Sklair, L. (2006). Iconic architecture and capitalist globalization. City, 10(1), 21–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Smyth, H. (1994). Marketing the city: The role of flagship developments in urban regeneration (1st ed.). London: E & FN Spon.Google Scholar
  36. Swyngedouw, E., Moulaert, F., & Rodriguez, A. (2002). Neoliberal urbanization in Europe: Large-scale urban development projects and the new urban policy. Antipode, 34(3), 542–577.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Will, R. (2012). China’s stadium diplomacy. World Policy Journal, 29(2), 36–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Zimbalist, A. (2010). Is it worth it? Hosting the Olympic Games and other mega sporting events is an honor many countries aspire to—But why? Finance & Development, 47, 8–11.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Melina Giannakopoulou
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Sports Organization and Management, Faculty of Human Movement and Quality of LifeUniversity of PeloponneseSpartaGreece

Personalised recommendations