Congenital Ocular Infections

  • Robert M. VerdijkEmail author
  • Martina C. Herwig-Carl


Congenital infections have decreased dramatically in the Western population due to preventive measures and intensive prenatal and perinatal care to pregnant women and their babies. Population-based vaccination programs have had a dramatic effect on the incidence of viral and bacterial infections that may affect the mother and child, but infections remain a common cause of perinatal death in populations that have no or low access to prenatal and/or perinatal care. The sequelae of typical TORCH (Toxoplasmosis, Other [e.g., listeria], Rubella, Cytomegalovirus, and Herpes simplex virus) infections in the eye are described. Knowledge of these infections remains necessary in order to be able to recognize these increasingly rare conditions in the deceased fetus and neonate.


Congenital infection TORCH Toxoplasmosis Bacterial infection Rubella virus Cytomegalovirus Herpes simplex virus 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Section Ophthalmic PathologyErasmus MC University Medical Center RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PathologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany

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