Ocular Findings in Newborns

  • Robert M. VerdijkEmail author
  • Martina C. Herwig-Carl


Ocular findings in newborns are defined in this chapter as acquired perinatal and postnatal (non-neoplastic) lesions to the eye. Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is most frequently observed in early premature and dysmature children of low birth weight, with supplemental oxygen exposure compromising a further regular differentiation of retinal blood vessels and leading to fibrovascular proliferation. Different stages of ROP can be distinguished, which can be accompanied by retinal hemorrhage. Traumatic retinal hemorrhage may develop from the trauma of birth, accidents, or abusive head trauma (AHT), a form of non-accidental head injury formerly known as shaken baby syndrome. The knowledge of these conditions is essential for the pediatric pathologist, ophthalmic pathologist, and forensic pathologist. The typical findings and differential diagnosis of retinal hemorrhage in young infants are discussed in this chapter.


Perinatal Premature Dysmature Retinopathy of prematurity Abusive head trauma Shaken baby syndrome Retinal hemorrhage Forensic pathology 


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pathology, Section Ophthalmic PathologyErasmus MC University Medical Center RotterdamRotterdamThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of PathologyLeiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyUniversity Hospital BonnBonnGermany

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