Advertisement

Permanent Migration in the Post-Soviet Countries

  • Mikhail DenisenkoEmail author
  • Nikita Mkrtchyan
  • Olga Chudinovskikh
Chapter
  • 23 Downloads
Part of the Societies and Political Orders in Transition book series (SOCPOT)

Abstract

In this chapter, we aim to demonstrate how the trends, scales, and factors of long-term migration in the CIS countries have changed over time. After the collapse of the USSR, its territory became an arena of mass migrations, which were initially caused by economic and political shocks. In the late 1990s, significant economic and demographic differences between the region’s main donor and recipient countries became evident. A regional migration system has been formed and exists in the CIS, with the main center in Russia and a second center in Kazakhstan. Relations between the majority of other states that made up the former USSR are relatively weak. A year-long outflow of the Russian-speaking population from the states of Transcaucasia and Central Asia, as well as migration among the representatives of the titular nations of these countries to Russia and Kazakhstan have noticeably changed the population structure, both in donor and recipient countries. A significant part of the flow from the states of the European part of the CIS has been reoriented toward countries outside the former USSR.

References

  1. Bayburin, A. (2017). Sovietskiy passport: Istoria – structura – praktiki [The Soviet Passport: History – Structure – Practice]. St. Petersburg: Publishing House of the European University at St. Petersburg.Google Scholar
  2. Chudinovskikh, O. (2012). Migration and bilateral agreements in the Commonwealth of Independent States. In OECD, Free movement of workers and labour market adjustment: Recent experiences from OECD countries and the European Union (pp. 251–276). Paris: OECD Publishing.Google Scholar
  3. Chudinovskikh, O. (2016a). Administrativnaya statistika mezhdunarodnoj migracii: Istochniki, problemy i situaciya v Rossii [Admnistrative statistcs on internaitonal migration: Sources, issues and situation in Russia]. Voprosy statistiki [Statistical Issues], 2, 32–46.Google Scholar
  4. Chudinovskikh, O. (2016b). The need for migration data and their availability in the Countries of North and Central Asia. Series 3. Migration Management in North and Central Asia. United Nation. ESCAP. Accessed November 25, 2018, from https://www.unescap.org/sites/default/files/3%20Data%20Needs%20Rus%20report%20v4-1-E_0.pdf
  5. Demoscope-Weekly. (2019). All-union population census 1989. Accessed May 25, 2019, from http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/sng_pob_89.php?reg=1
  6. Denisenko, M. B. (2010). Komponenty izmenenya chislennosti narodov Rossii v 1990-kh [Components of the change in the number of Peoples of Russia in the 1990s]. In I. A. Danilova & O. A. Kharayeva (Eds.), Etnicheskaya demografia [Ethnic demography] (pp. 7–23). Moscow: MAKS Press.Google Scholar
  7. FMS, Federal Migration Service of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. (2002). Informatsionno-statisticheskiy sbornik FMS MVD Rossii [Information and statistical collection of FMS MVD of Russia] No. 1. Moscow.Google Scholar
  8. Gaidar, E. T. (2006). Loss of an Empire. Lessons for Modern Russia. Moscow: ROSSPEN.Google Scholar
  9. IOM, International Organization for Migration. (2002). Tendentsii v oblasti migratsii v stranakh Vostochnoy Evropy i Tsentralnoy Azii. Obzor za 2001–2002 gody. [Migration trends in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: 2001–2002 review]. Geneva: IOM.Google Scholar
  10. Ivakhnyuk, I. V. (2008). Evraziyskaya migratsionnaya sistema: Teoriya i politika [Eurasian migration system: Theory and politics]. Bulletin of the Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia. Series: International Relations, No. 2, 21–28.Google Scholar
  11. Khorev, B. S., & Capek, V. N. (1978). Problemy izuchenia migratsii naselenia [Problems of studying human migration]. Moscow: Mysl’ Publishers.Google Scholar
  12. Khorev, B. S., Danilova, I. A., et al. (1986). Razmeshchenie naselenia v SSSR: Regionalnyi aspect dinamiki i politiki narodonaselenia [Distribution of Population in the USSR: The Regional Aspect of Population Dynamics and Policy]. Moscow: Mysl’ Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Lazareva, O. (2015). Russian migrants to Russia: Assimilation and local labor market effects. IZA Journal of Migration, 4(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Light, M. (2016). Fragile migration rights: Freedom of movement in post-Soviet Russia. New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mansoor, A., & Quillin, B. (Eds.). (2006). Migration and remittances: Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union. Washington, DC: The World Bank.Google Scholar
  16. Mkrtchyan, N. B. (2002). Desyatiletiye vynuzhdennoy migratsii [Decade of Forced Migration]. Demoscope weekly, No. 71–72. Accessed May 20, 2019, from http://www.demoscope.ru/weekly/2002/071/tema01.php
  17. Mukomel, V. I. (2005). Migratsionnaya politika Rossii: Postsovetskiye konteksty [Russian migration policy: Post-Soviet context]. Moscow: Dipol-T.Google Scholar
  18. Rosstat, Federal State Statistical Service. (2015–2018). Sotsialno-ekonomicheskoye polozheniye Rossii [Social and economic situation in Russia]. Statistical Bulletin. Moscow: Rosstat.Google Scholar
  19. Rosstat, Federal State Statistical Service. (2019a). Censuses of population. Accessed May 25, 2019, from https://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/inspection/vpn/vpn_popul.htm
  20. Rosstat, Federal State Statistical Service. (2019b). Chislennost i migratsiya naseleniya Rossiyskoy Federatsii v 2018 g. [Population size and migration in the Russian Federation in 2018]. Statistical Bulletin. Moscow: Rosstat.Google Scholar
  21. Rybakovsky, L. L. (1973). Regionalnyi analiz migratsii [Regional analysis of migration]. Moscow: Statistica.Google Scholar
  22. Skachkova, G. S. (2012). Legal aspects of labor migration management in the Russian Federation. CARIM-East RR 2012/25, Robert Schuman Centre for Advanced Studies, San Domenico di Fiesole (FI): European University Institute, 2012.Google Scholar
  23. Stalker, P. (2000). Workers without frontiers. The impact of globalisation on international migration. Lynne Reinner Publisher.Google Scholar
  24. State Program. (2006). Gosudarstvennaya programma po okazaniyu sodeystviya dobrovolnomu pereseleniyu v Rossiyskuyu Federatsiyu sootechestvennikov. Prozhivayushchikh za rubezhom [State Program to Assist Voluntary Resettlement of Ethnic Russians Living Abroad]. Approved by Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 637 dated June 22, 2006. Accessed December 20, 2018, from http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_135348/9cf95e1cef34d74eca9a5792671e8c9e40db0c88/ Date of view 18.03.2019
  25. UNHCR, The UN Refugee Agency. (1992). UNHCR population statistics, time series. Accessed January 7, 2019, from http://popstats.unhcr.org/en/time_series
  26. UNHCR, The UN Refugee Agency. (2017). As Ukraine conflict heads into fourth winter, thousands face freezing conditions. Accessed January 7, 2019, from http://www.unhcr.org/ua/en/11624-ukraine-conflict-heads-fourth-winter-thousands-face-freezing-conditions.html#_ga=2.3840371.271345286.1536481594-2093388011.1536269308 Date of view 18.03.2019
  27. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2001). International migration from countries with economies in transition 1980–2000. New York: United Nation. ESA/P/WP.166.Google Scholar
  28. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2006). Trends in total migrant stock: The 2005 revision. CD-Room Documentation. New York: United Nations.Google Scholar
  29. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2015). International migration flows to and from selected countries: The 2015 revision. Accessed October 31, 2018, from https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/data/empirical2/migrationflows.asp
  30. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2017). Trends in international migrant stock: The 2017 revision (United Nations database, POP/DB/MIG/Stock/Rev.2017).Google Scholar
  31. United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2019). World population prospects. The 2019 Revision. Accessed July 25, 2019, from https://population.un.org/wpp/
  32. Vishnevskiy, A. G. (Ed.). (1999–2001). Naseleniye Rossii 1998 [Population of Russia 1998]. Moscow: University Book House.Google Scholar
  33. Vitkovskaya, G. S. (1993). Vynuzhdennaya migratsiya: Problemy i perspektivy [Forced Migration: Problems and Prospects]. Migration Research Program, Issue III. Moscow: IEF RAS.Google Scholar
  34. Vitkovskaya, G. S. (1998). Desyat let vynuzhdennykh migratsiy v Rossii [Ten Years of Forced Migration in Russia]. Naselenie i obschestvo [Population and Society], No. 32, November.Google Scholar
  35. Vitkovskaya, G. S., & Kocharyan, A. V. (1992). Vynuzhdennyye migratsii kak sotsialnaya problema [Forced migrations as a social problem]. In Z. A. Zaionchkovskaya (Ed.), Migratsiya naseleniya [Migration of the population] (pp. 61–82). Moscow: Center for Demography and Human Ecology.Google Scholar
  36. Vorobeva, O. D., Mkrtchyan, N. V., Moshkin, N. G., & Chulkov, N. V. (1995). Vynuzhdennaya migratsiya naseleniya iz Chechni [Forced Migration of the Population from Chechnya]. Informatsionno-analiticheskiy byullieten Federalnoy migratsionnoy sluzhby [Information and analytical bulletin of the federal migration service], No. 7, 41–47.Google Scholar
  37. Zaionchkovskaya, Zh. A. (2005). Migratsionnyy krizis i migratsionnyy vzryv v Rossii v 1980-e i 1990-e gody [Migration crisis and migration explosion in Russia in the 1980s and 1990s]. In O. Gelzer & P. Polyan (Eds.), Rossiya i ee regiony v XX veke: Territoriya – rasseleniye – migratsii [Russia and its Regions in XX century: Territory – settlements – migration] (pp. 383–412). Moscow: OGI.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mikhail Denisenko
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nikita Mkrtchyan
    • 2
  • Olga Chudinovskikh
    • 3
  1. 1.National Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia
  2. 2.Institute of DemographyNational Research University Higher School of EconomicsMoscowRussia
  3. 3.Faculty of EconomicsLomonosov Moscow State UniversityMoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations