Advertisement

Effect of Graphene Nanosheets Reinforcement on the Mechanical Properties of Rubber Seed Oil Based Polyurethane Nanocomposites

  • E. O. ObazeeEmail author
  • F. E. Okieimen
Conference paper
Part of the The Minerals, Metals & Materials Series book series (MMMS)

Abstract

Graphene-reinforced polyurethane nanocomposites were prepared by catalytic reaction of dispersion of exfoliated graphene nanosheet/rubber seed oil polyol (Gr–RSOP) hybrid and polyisocyanates (hexamethylene diisocyanate, HMDI, and 4,4’-methylene-bis(phenylisocyanate, MDI), at equimolar reactant ratios (NCO/OH ratio of 1.0), to give samples Gr–PUH and Gr–PUM, respectively. The structure and morphology of the obtained nanocomposites were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and FT–IR, respectively, while the mechanical and thermal properties were determined using nanoindenter, universal testing machine and thermogravimetric analyzer. The X-ray pattern revealed exfoliated graphene nanosheets in the nanocomposites, while the structures of the neat polyurethanes and nanocomposites showed great similarity. The hardness, tensile strength, young modulus, and thermal stability showed varied improvement and a corresponding reduction in elongation attributed to graphene incorporation.

Keywords

Graphene Rubber seed oil Polyol Polyurethane Nanocomposites Property 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to acknowledge with gratitude Prof. Timothy Gonsalves, the Director of Indian Institute of Technology Mandi, Himachal Pradesh, India, for the Research Internship granted to EOO that made this possible, and Prof. I.O. Eguavoen, the Executive Director of Rubber Research Institute of Nigeria for the research leave granted to EOO.

References

  1. 1.
    Inagaki M, Tashiro R, Washino Y, Toyoda M (2004) J Phys Chem Solids 65:133Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Chung DDL (1987) J Mater Sci 22:4190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306(5696):666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Nandamuri G, Roumimov S, Solanki R (2010) Chemical vapor deposition of graphene films. Nanotechnology 21–145604Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bae S, Kim H, Lee Y, Xu X, Park JS, Zheng Y, Balakrishnan J, Lei T, Ri KH, Song YI, Kim YJ, Kim KS, Ozyilmaz B, Ahn JH, Hong BH, Iijima S (2010) Roll-to-roll production of 30-inch graphene films for transparent electrodes. Nat Nano 5(8):574–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shivaraman S, Barton RA, Yu X, Alden J, Herman L, Chandrashekhar MVS, Park J, Mc Euen PL, Parpia JM, Craighead HG, Spencer MG (2009) Free-standing epitaxial graphene. Nano Lett 9(9):3100–3105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Aristov VY, Urbanik G, Kummer K, Vyalikh DV, Molodtsova OV, Preobrajenski AB, Zakharov AA, Hess C, Hänke T, Büchner B, Vobornik I, Fujii J, Panaccione G, Ossipyan YA, Knupfer M (2010) Graphene synthesis on cubic sic/si wafers. Perspectives for mass production of graphene-based electronic devices. Nano Lett 10(3):992–995CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Emtsev KV, Bostwick A, Horn K, Jobst J, Kellogg GL, Ley L, Mc Chesney JL, Ohta T, Reshanov SA, Rohrl J, Rotenberg E, Schmid AK, Waldmann D, Weber HB, Seyller T (2009) Towards wafer-size graphene layers by atmospheric pressure graphitization of silicon carbide. Nat Mater 8(3):203–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Deng D, Pan X, Zhang H, Fu Q, Tan D, Bao X (2010) Frees tanding graphene by thermal splitting of silicon carbide granules. Adv Mater 22(19):2168–2171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cui X, Zhang C, Hao R, Hou Y (2011) Liquid-phase exfoliation, functionalization and application of graphene, nanoscale 3:2118–2126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Mittal V (2012) Polymer–Graphene nanocomposites. RSC nanoscience & nanotechnology No. 26. The Royal Society of Chemistry. Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry, www.rsc.org
  12. 12.
    Allen ML, Tung VC, Kaner RB (2010) honeycomb carbon: a review of graphene. Chem Rev 2010(110):132–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Chen Z, Chisholm B, Patani R, Wu J, Fernando S, Jogodzinski K, Webster D (2010) Soybased UV-curable thiol–ene coatings. J Coat Technol Res 7:603–613CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Xu M, Zhang W, Yang Z, Yu F, Ma Y, Hu N, He D, Liang Q, Su Y, Zhang Y (2015) One-pot liquid-phase exfoliation from graphite to graphene with carbon quantum dots. Nanoscale 7:10527–10534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Liu W, Bao-Yu Xia B-Y, Xiao-Xia Wang X-X, Wang J-N (2012) Exfoliation and dispersion of graphene in ethanol-water mixtures. Front Mater Sci 6(2):176–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Meyer JC, Geim AK, Katsnelson MI, Novoselov KS, Booth TJ, Roth S (2007) Nature 446:60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lee C, Wei X, Kysar JW, Hone J (2008) Science 321:385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sham AYW, Notley SM (2013) A review of fundamental properties and applications of polymer–graphene hybrid materials. Soft Matter 9:6645–6653CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhang YB, Small JP, Amori MES, Kim P (2005) Phys Rev Lett 94:176–803Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Su CY, Xu YP, Zhang WJ et al (2009) Electrical and spectroscopic characterizations of ultra-large reduced graphene oxide monolayers. Chem Mater 21(23):5674–5680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Stoller MD, Park S, Zhu Y et al (2008) Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett 8(10):3498–3502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lin YM, Jenkins KA, Valdes-Garcia A et al (2009) Operation of graphene transistors at gigahertz frequencies. Nano Lett 9(1):422–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Si YC, Samulski ET (2008) Exfoliated graphene separated by platinum nanoparticles. Chem Mater 20(21):679–6792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Skaltsas T, Karousis N, Yan H-J, Wang C-R, Pispas S, Tagmatarchis N (2012) Graphene exfoliation in organic solvents and switching solubility in aqueous media with the aid of amphiphilic bock copolymers. J Mater Chem 2012(22):21507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gómez-Navarro C, Weitz RT, Bittner AM et al (2007) Electronic transport properties of individual chemically reduced graphene oxide sheets. Nano Lett 7(11):3499–3503CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Dimiev A, Kosynkin DV, Alemany LB et al (2012) Pristine graphite oxide. J Am Chem Soc 134(5):2815–2822CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Tung VC, Allen MJ, Yang Y et al (2009) High-throughput solution processing of large-scale graphene. Nat Nanotechnol 4(1):25–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Dommett GHB, Kohlhaas KM, Zimney EJ, Stach EA, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006) Nature 442(7100):282–286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Luo Z, Lu Y, Somers LA et al (2009) High yield preparation of macroscopic graphene oxide membranes. J Am Chem Soc 131(3):898–899CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tang LH, Wang Y, Li YM et al (2009) Preparation, structure, and electrochemical properties of reduced graphene sheet films. Adv Func Mater 19(17):2782–2789CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Notley SM (2012) Langmuir 28:14110–14113CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Zheng W, Wong S-C (2003) Compos. Sci. Technol. 63(2):225–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Zheng W, Wong S-C, Sue H-J (2002) Polymer 73(25):6767–6773CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xu J, Hu Y, Song L, Wang Q, Fan W, Liao G, Chen Z (2001) Polym Degrad Stab 73(1):29–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Sadasivuni KK, Ponnamma D, Kim J, Thomas S (eds) (2015) Graphene-based polymer nanocomposite in electronics, VI, 382 p 175. ISBN 978-3-319-13874-9Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Jing-Wei S, Xiao-Mei C, Wen-Yi H (2003) J Appl Polym Sci 88(7):1864–1869CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Liu PG, Xiao P, Xiao M, Gong K-C (2000) Chin J Polym Sci 18(5):413–418. Wenge Z, Xuehong L, Shing-Chung WJ (2004) Appl Polym Sci, 91(5):2781–2788Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kim H, Abdala AA, Macosko CW (2010) Graphen/polymer nanocomposites. Macromolecules 43:6515–6530CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Kuilla T, Bhadra S, Yao D, Kim NH, Bose S, Lee JH (2010) Recent advances in graphene based polymer composites. Prog Mater Sci 35:1350–1375Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Yang D, Velamakanni A, Bozoklu G et al (2009) Chemical analysis of graphene oxide films after heat and chemical treatments by X-ray photoelectron and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. Carbon 47(1):145–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Liu S, Tian M, Yan B, Yao Y, Zhang L, Nishi T (2015) High performance dielectric elastomers by partially reduced graphene oxide and disruption of hydrogen bonding of polyurethanes. Polymer 56:375–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Obazee EO (2018) PhD Thesis. Biobased polymers from modified rubber seed oil, University of Benin City, Benin CityGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ferrer CC, Babb D, Ryan AJ (2008) Characterization of polyurethane networks based on vegetable derived polyol. Polymer 49:3279–3287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Singh V, Joung D, Zhai L, Das S, Khondaker SI, Seal S (2011) Graphene based materials: past, present and future. Prog Mater Sci 56:1178–1271CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Rubber Research Institute of NigeriaBenin CityNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and Center for Biomaterials ResearchUniversity of BeninBenin CityNigeria

Personalised recommendations