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Models for Monocytic Cells in the Tumor Microenvironment

  • Sharon W. L. Lee
  • Giulia Adriani
  • Roger D. KammEmail author
  • Mark R. GillrieEmail author
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 1224)

Abstract

Monocytes (Mos) are immune cells that critically regulate cancer, enabling tumor growth and modulating metastasis. Mos can give rise to tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and Mo-derived dendritic cells (moDCs), all of which shape the tumor microenvironment (TME). Thus, understanding their roles in the TME is key for improved immunotherapy. Concurrently, various biological and mechanical factors including changes in local cytokines, extracellular matrix production, and metabolic changes in the TME affect the roles of monocytic cells. As such, relevant TME models are critical to achieve meaningful insight on the precise functions, mechanisms, and effects of monocytic cells. Notably, murine models have yielded significant insight into human Mo biology. However, many of these results have yet to be confirmed in humans, reinforcing the need for improved in vitro human TME models for the development of cancer interventions. Thus, this chapter (1) summarizes current insight on the tumor biology of Mos, TAMs, and moDCs, (2) highlights key therapeutic applications relevant to these cells, and (3) discusses various TME models to study their TME-related activity. We conclude with a perspective on the future research trajectory of this topic.

Keywords

Monocytes Macrophages Monocyte-derived dendritic cells Ontogeny Differentiation and commitment Heterogeneity Cancer 2D versus 3D Human versus mouse Microfluidic models Organ-on-a-chip Tumor microenvironment Combinational immunotherapy Autologous cell therapy Personalized precision medicine 

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART)BioSystems and Micromechanics (BioSyM) IRGSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Yong Loo Lin School of MedicineNational University of SingaporeSingaporeSingapore
  3. 3.Singapore Immunology Network (SIgN)Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A∗STAR)SingaporeSingapore
  4. 4.Department of Mechanical EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  5. 5.Department of Biological EngineeringMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyCambridgeUSA
  6. 6.Department of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

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